Quail DF, Joyce JA. Microenvironmental regulation of tumor progression and metastasis. Nat Med. 2013;19:1423–37.
Booth A, Magnuson A, Fouts J, Foster MT. Adipose tissue: an endocrine organ playing a role in metabolic regulation. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2016;26:25–42.
Exley MA, Hand L, O’Shea D, Lynch L. Interplay between the immune system and adipose tissue in obesity. J Endocrinol. 2014;223:R41–8.
Galic S, Oakhill JS, Steinberg GR. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;316:129–39.
Choi J, Cha YJ, Koo JS. Adipocyte biology in breast cancer: from silent bystander to active facilitator. Prog Lipid Res. 2018;69:11–20.
Duong MN, Cleret A, Matera EL, Chettab K, Mathe D, Valsesia-Wittmann S, et al. Adipose cells promote resistance of breast cancer cells to trastuzumab-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Breast Cancer Res. 2015;17:57.
Nieman KM, Kenny HA, Penicka CV, Ladanyi A, Buell-Gutbrod R, Zillhardt MR, et al. Adipocytes promote ovarian cancer metastasis and provide energy for rapid tumor growth. Nat Med. 2011;17:1498–503.
Schweizer R, Tsuji W, Gorantla VS, Marra KG, Rubin JP, Plock JA. The role of adipose-derived stem cells in breast cancer progression and metastasis. Stem Cells Int. 2015;2015:120949.
Cook KS, Min HY, Johnson D, Chaplinsky RJ, Flier JS, Hunt CR, et al. Adipsin: a circulating serine protease homolog secreted by adipose tissue and sciatic nerve. Science. 1987;237:402–5.
Brown JD, Plutzky J. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as transcriptional nodal points and therapeutic targets. Circulation. 2007;115:518–33.
Pattrick M, Luckett J, Yue L, Stover C. Dual role of complement in adipose tissue. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:755–60.
Carmona-Fontaine C, Theveneau E, Tzekou A, Tada M, Woods M, Page KM, et al. Complement fragment C3a controls mutual cell attraction during collective cell migration. Dev Cell. 2011;21:1026–37.
Chedraui P, Perez-Lopez FR, Escobar GS, Palla G, Montt-Guevara M, Cecchi E, et al. Circulating leptin, resistin, adiponectin, visfatin, adipsin and ghrelin levels and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with and without the metabolic syndrome. Maturitas. 2014;79:86–90.
Lo JC, Ljubicic S, Leibiger B, Kern M, Leibiger IB, Moede T, et al. Adipsin is an adipokine that improves beta cell function in diabetes. Cell. 2014;158:41–53.
Ratajczak MZ, Reca R, Wysoczynski M, Yan J, Ratajczak J. Modulation of the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis by the third complement component (C3)--implications for trafficking of CXCR4 + stem cells. Exp Hematol. 2006;34:986–95.
Song NJ, Kim S, Jang BH, Chang SH, Yun UJ, Park KM, et al. Small molecule-induced complement factor D (adipsin) promotes lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0162228.
Sprong T, Roos D, Weemaes C, Neeleman C, Geesing CL, Mollnes TE, et al. Deficient alternative complement pathway activation due to factor D deficiency by 2 novel mutations in the complement factor D gene in a family with meningococcal infections. Blood. 2006;107:4865–70.
Wysoczynski M, Reca R, Lee H, Wu W, Ratajczak J, Ratajczak MZ. Defective engraftment of C3aR-/- hematopoietic stem progenitor cells shows a novel role of the C3a-C3aR axis in bone marrow homing. Leukemia. 2009;23:1455–61.
Couldrey C, Moitra J, Vinson C, Anver M, Nagashima K, Green J. Adipose tissue: a vital in vivo role in mammary gland development but not differentiation. Dev Dyn. 2002;223:459–68.
Stingl J, Eirew P, Ricketson I, Shackleton M, Vaillant F, Choi D, et al. Purification and unique properties of mammary epithelial stem cells. Nature. 2006;439:993–7.
Shackleton M, Vaillant F, Simpson KJ, Stingl J, Smyth GK, Asselin-Labat ML, et al. Generation of a functional mammary gland from a single stem cell. Nature. 2006;439:84–88.
Shimono Y, Zabala M, Cho RW, Lobo N, Dalerba P, Qian D, et al. Downregulation of miRNA-200c links breast cancer stem cells with normal stem cells. Cell. 2009;138:592–603.
Isobe T, Hisamori S, Hogan DJ, Zabala M, Hendrickson DG, Dalerba P. et al. miR-142 regulates the tumorigenicity of human breast cancer stem cells through the canonical WNT signaling pathway. eLife. 2014;3:e01977
Imamura Y, Mukohara T, Shimono Y, Funakoshi Y, Chayahara N, Toyoda M, et al. Comparison of 2D- and 3D-culture models as drug-testing platforms in breast cancer. Oncol Rep. 2015;33:1837–43.
Edmondson R, Broglie JJ, Adcock AF, Yang L. Three-dimensional cell culture systems and their applications in drug discovery and cell-based biosensors. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2014;12:207–18.
Cheng K-H, Kuo T-L, Kuo K-K, Hsiao C-C. Human adipose-derived stem cells: isolation, characterization and current application in regeneration medicine. Genom Med Biomark Health Sci. 2011;3:53–62.
Divella R, De Luca R, Abbate I, Naglieri E, Daniele A. Obesity and cancer: the role of adipose tissue and adipo-cytokines-induced chronic inflammation. J Cancer. 2016;7:2346–59.
Ando S, Catalano S. The multifactorial role of leptin in driving the breast cancer microenvironment. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011;8:263–75.
Hoy AJ, Balaban S, Saunders DN. Adipocyte-tumor cell metabolic crosstalk in breast cancer. Trends Mol Med. 2017;23:381–92.
Mantzoros C, Petridou E, Dessypris N, Chavelas C, Dalamaga M, Alexe DM, et al. Adiponectin and breast cancer risk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1102–7.
Zimmerlin L, Donnenberg AD, Rubin JP, Basse P, Landreneau RJ, Donnenberg VS. Regenerative therapy and cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies of the interaction between adipose-derived stem cells and breast cancer cells from clinical isolates. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011;17:93–106.
White RT, Damm D, Hancock N, Rosen BS, Lowell BB, Usher P, et al. Human adipsin is identical to complement factor D and is expressed at high levels in adipose tissue. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:9210–3.
Wang X, Liu J, Wang Z, Huang Y, Liu W, Zhu X, et al. Periostin contributes to the acquisition of multipotent stem cell-like properties in human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72962.
Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ. Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1625–38.
Goodwin PJ, Chlebowski RT. Obesity and cancer: insights for clinicians. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:4197–202.
Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, Heller RF, Zwahlen M. Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet. 2008;371:569–78.
Consultation WHOE. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;363:157–63.
Jiralerspong S, Goodwin PJ. Obesity and breast cancer prognosis: evidence, challenges, and opportunities. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:4203–16.
Pierobon M, Frankenfeld CL. Obesity as a risk factor for triple-negative breast cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;137:307–14.
Neuhouser ML, Aragaki AK, Prentice RL, Manson JE, Chlebowski R, Carty CL, et al. Overweight, obesity, and postmenopausal invasive breast cancer risk: a secondary analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA Oncol. 2015;1:611–21.
Booth A, Magnuson A, Fouts J, Foster M. Adipose tissue, obesity and adipokines: role in cancer promotion. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2015;21:57–74.
Goodwin PJ, Stambolic V. Impact of the obesity epidemic on cancer. Annu Rev Med. 2015;66:281–96.
Park J, Euhus DM, Scherer PE. Paracrine and endocrine effects of adipose tissue on cancer development and progression. Endocr Rev. 2011;32:550–70.
Afshar-Kharghan V. The role of the complement system in cancer. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:780–9.
Cho MS, Vasquez HG, Rupaimoole R, Pradeep S, Wu S, Zand B, et al. Autocrine effects of tumor-derived complement. Cell Rep. 2014;6:1085–95.
Nabizadeh JA, Manthey HD, Steyn FJ, Chen W, Widiapradja A, Md Akhir FN, et al. The complement C3a receptor contributes to melanoma tumorigenesis by inhibiting neutrophil and CD4 + T cell responses. J Immunol. 2016;196:4783–92.
Rutkowski MJ, Sughrue ME, Kane AJ, Mills SA, Parsa AT. Cancer and the complement cascade. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:1453–65.
Rhoades W, Dickson D, Do DV. Potential role of lampalizumab for treatment of geographic atrophy. Clin Ophthalmol. 2015;9:1049–56.
Bunnell BA, Flaat M, Gagliardi C, Patel B, Ripoll C. Adipose-derived stem cells: isolation, expansion and differentiation. Methods. 2008;45:115–20.
Tiscornia G, Singer O, Verma IM. Production and purification of lentiviral vectors. Nat Protoc. 2006;1:241–5.
Kanda Y. Investigation of the freely available easy-to-use software ‘EZR’ for medical statistics. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2013;48:452–8.