Subjects

Abstract

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) exemplify top-down dysregulation conditions that show a large comorbidity and shared genetics. At the same time, they entail two different types of symptomology involving mainly non-emotional or emotional dysregulation. Few studies have tried to separate the specific biology underlying these two dimensions. It has also been suggested that both types of conditions consist of extreme cases in the general population where the symptoms are widely distributed. Here we test whether brain structure is specifically associated to ADHD or CD symptoms in a general population of adolescents (n = 1093) being part of the IMAGEN project. Both ADHD symptoms and CD symptoms were related to similar and overlapping MRI findings of a smaller structure in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. However, our regions of interest (ROI) approach indicated that gray matter volume (GMV) and surface area (SA) in dorsolateral/dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and caudal anterior cingulate cortex were negatively associated to ADHD symptoms when controlling for CD symptoms while rostral anterior cingulate cortex GMV was negatively associated to CD symptoms when controlling for ADHD symptoms. The structural findings were mirrored in performance of neuropsychological tests dependent on prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions, showing that while performance on the Stop Signal test was specifically related to the ADHD trait, delayed discounting and working memory were related to both ADHD and CD traits. These results point towards a partially domain specific and dimensional capacity in different top-down regulatory systems associated with ADHD and CD symptoms.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    Barkley RA. Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychol Bull. 1997;121:65–94.

  2. 2.

    Petrovic P, Castellanos FX. Top-down dysregulation–from ADHD to emotional instability. Front Behav Neurosci. 2016;10:1–25.

  3. 3.

    Willcutt EG, Doyle AE, Nigg JT, Faraone SV, Pennington BF. Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57:1336–46.

  4. 4.

    Blair RJ, Leibenluft E, Pine DS. Conduct disorder and callous-unemotional traits in youth. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:2207–16.

  5. 5.

    Glenn AL, Johnson AK, Raine A. Antisocial personality disorder: a current review. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2013;15:427.

  6. 6.

    Rubia K. “Cool” inferior frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus “hot” ventromedial orbitofrontal-limbic dysfunction in conduct disorder: a review. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69:e69–87.

  7. 7.

    Sebastian A, Jung P, Krause-Utz A, Lieb K, Schmahl C, Tuscher O. Frontal dysfunctions of impulse control - a systematic review in borderline personality disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014;8:698.

  8. 8.

    Anckarsater H, Stahlberg O, Larson T, Hakansson C, Jutblad SB, Niklasson L, et al. The impact of ADHD and autism spectrum disorders on temperament, character, and personality development. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:1239–44.

  9. 9.

    Philipsen A, Limberger MF, Lieb K, Feige B, Kleindienst N, Ebner-Priemer U, et al. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as a potentially aggravating factor in borderline personality disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2008;192:118–23.

  10. 10.

    Semiz UB, Basoglu C, Oner O, Munir KM, Ates A, Algul A, et al. Effects of diagnostic comorbidity and dimensional symptoms of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in men with antisocial personality disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42:405–13.

  11. 11.

    Storebo OJ, Simonsen E. The association between ADHD and Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD): a review. J Atten Disord. 2013;20:815–24.

  12. 12.

    Distel MA, Carlier A, Middeldorp CM, Derom CA, Lubke GH, Boomsma DI. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a genetic analysis of comorbidity. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011;156B:817–25.

  13. 13.

    Insel T, Cuthbert B, Garvey M, Heinssen R, Pine DS, Quinn K, et al. Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:748–51.

  14. 14.

    Crosbie J, Arnold P, Paterson A, Swanson J, Dupuis A, Li X, et al. Response inhibition and ADHD traits: correlates and heritability in a community sample. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2013;41:497–507.

  15. 15.

    Das D, Cherbuin N, Butterworth P, Anstey KJ, Easteal S. A population-based study of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and associated impairment in middle-aged adults. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31500.

  16. 16.

    Petrovic P, Ekman CJ, Klahr J, Tigerstrom L, Ryden G, Johansson AG, et al. Significant grey matter changes in a region of the orbitofrontal cortex in healthy participants predicts emotional dysregulation. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2015;11:1041–9.

  17. 17.

    Castellanos FX, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Milham MP, Tannock R. Characterizing cognition in ADHD: beyond executive dysfunction. Trends Cogn Sci. 2006;10:117–23.

  18. 18.

    Castellanos FX, Tannock R. Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the search for endophenotypes. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2002;3:617–28.

  19. 19.

    Shaw P, Stringaris A, Nigg J, Leibenluft E. Emotion dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2014;171:276–93.

  20. 20.

    Alderson RM, Rapport MD, Kofler MJ. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavioral inhibition: a meta-analytic review of the stop-signal paradigm. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2007;35:745–58.

  21. 21.

    Lansbergen MM, Kenemans JL, van Engeland H. Stroop interference and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review and metaanalysis. Neuropsychology. 2007;21:251–62.

  22. 22.

    Nichols SL, Waschbusch DA. A review of the validity of laboratory cognitive tasks used to assess symptoms of ADHD. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2004;34:297–315.

  23. 23.

    Bush G. Cingulate, frontal, and parietal cortical dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69:1160–7.

  24. 24.

    Cieslik EC, Mueller VI, Eickhoff CR, Langner R, Eickhoff SB. Three key regions for supervisory attentional control: evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;48:22–34.

  25. 25.

    Nee DE, Wager TD, Jonides J. Interference resolution: insights from a meta-analysis of neuroimaging tasks. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2007;7:1–17.

  26. 26.

    Cortese S, Kelly C, Chabernaud C, Proal E, Di Martino A, Milham MP, et al. Toward systems neuroscience of ADHD: a meta-analysis of 55 fMRI studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169:1038–55.

  27. 27.

    Dickstein SG, Bannon K, Castellanos FX, Milham MP. The neural correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an ALE meta-analysis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006;47:1051–62.

  28. 28.

    Hart H, Radua J, Nakao T, Mataix-Cols D, Rubia K. Meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of inhibition and attention in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: exploring task-specific, stimulant medication, and age effects. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70:185–98.

  29. 29.

    Norman LJ, Carlisi C, Lukito S, Hart H, Mataix-Cols D, Radua J, et al. Structural and functional brain abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comparative meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73:815–25.

  30. 30.

    Shaw P, Eckstrand K, Sharp W, Blumenthal J, Lerch JP, Greenstein D, et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007;104:19649–54.

  31. 31.

    Shaw P, Malek M, Watson B, Greenstein D, de Rossi P, Sharp W. Trajectories of cerebral cortical development in childhood and adolescence and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;74:599–606.

  32. 32.

    Seidman LJ, Biederman J, Liang L, Valera EM, Monuteaux MC, Brown A, et al. Gray matter alterations in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder identified by voxel based morphometry. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69:857–66.

  33. 33.

    Frodl T, Skokauskas N. Meta-analysis of structural MRI studies in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder indicates treatment effects. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012;125:114–26.

  34. 34.

    Nakao T, Radua J, Rubia K, Mataix-Cols D. Gray matter volume abnormalities in ADHD: voxel-based meta-analysis exploring the effects of age and stimulant medication. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:1154–63.

  35. 35.

    Enzi B, Doering S, Faber C, Hinrichs J, Bahmer J, Northoff G. Reduced deactivation in reward circuitry and midline structures during emotion processing in borderline personality disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013;14:45–56.

  36. 36.

    Holtmann J, Herbort MC, Wustenberg T, Soch J, Richter S, Walter H, et al. Trait anxiety modulates fronto-limbic processing of emotional interference in borderline personality disorder. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7:54.

  37. 37.

    Jacob GA, Zvonik K, Kamphausen S, Sebastian A, Maier S, Philipsen A, et al. Emotional modulation of motor response inhibition in women with borderline personality disorder: an fMRI study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2013;38:164–72.

  38. 38.

    Lang S, Kotchoubey B, Frick C, Spitzer C, Grabe HJ, Barnow S. Cognitive reappraisal in trauma-exposed women with borderline personality disorder. Neuroimage. 2012;59:1727–34.

  39. 39.

    Schulze L, Domes G, Kruger A, Berger C, Fleischer M, Prehn K, et al. Neuronal correlates of cognitive reappraisal in borderline patients with affective instability. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69:564–73.

  40. 40.

    Silbersweig D, Clarkin JF, Goldstein M, Kernberg OF, Tuescher O, Levy KN, et al. Failure of frontolimbic inhibitory function in the context of negative emotion in borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1832–41.

  41. 41.

    Wingenfeld K, Rullkoetter N, Mensebach C, Beblo T, Mertens M, Kreisel S, et al. Neural correlates of the individual emotional Stroop in borderline personality disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34:571–86.

  42. 42.

    Soloff P, Nutche J, Goradia D, Diwadkar V. Structural brain abnormalities in borderline personality disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study. Psychiatry Res. 2008;164:223–36.

  43. 43.

    Soloff PH, Pruitt P, Sharma M, Radwan J, White R, Diwadkar VA. Structural brain abnormalities and suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2012;46:516–25.

  44. 44.

    Yang Y, Raine A. Prefrontal structural and functional brain imaging findings in antisocial, violent, and psychopathic individuals: a meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2009;174:81–8.

  45. 45.

    Rogers JC, De Brito SA. Cortical and subcortical gray matter volume in youths with conduct problems: a meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73:64–72.

  46. 46.

    Sebastian CL, De Brito SA, McCrory EJ, Hyde ZH, Lockwood PL, Cecil CA, et al. Grey matter volumes in children with conduct problems and varying levels of callous-unemotional traits. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2016;44:639–49.

  47. 47.

    Schumann G, Loth E, Banaschewski T, Barbot A, Barker G, Buchel C, et al. The IMAGEN study: reinforcement-related behaviour in normal brain function and psychopathology. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:1128–39.

  48. 48.

    Albaugh M, Orr C, Chaarani B, Althoff R, Allgaier N, D’Alberto N, et al. Inattention and reaction time variability are linked to ventromedial prefrontal volume in adolescents. Biol Psychiatry. 2017;82:660–8.

  49. 49.

    Wager TD, Atlas LY. The neuroscience of placebo effects: connecting context, learning and health. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2015;16:403–18.

  50. 50.

    Wager TD, Davidson ML, Hughes BL, Lindquist MA, Ochsner KN. Prefrontal-subcortical pathways mediating successful emotion regulation. Neuron. 2008;59:1037–50.

  51. 51.

    Goodman R. Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40:1337–45.

  52. 52.

    Carroll JM, Maughan B, Goodman R, Meltzer H. Literacy difficulties and psychiatric disorders: evidence for comorbidity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46:524–32.

  53. 53.

    Schilling C, Kuhn S, Paus T, Romanowski A, Banaschewski T, Barbot A, et al. Cortical thickness of superior frontal cortex predicts impulsiveness and perceptual reasoning in adolescence. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:624–30.

  54. 54.

    Panizzon MS, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, Jernigan TL, Prom-Wormley E, Neale M, et al. Distinct genetic influences on cortical surface area and cortical thickness. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:2728–35.

  55. 55.

    Winkler AM, Kochunov P, Blangero J, Almasy L, Zilles K, Fox PT, et al. Cortical thickness or grey matter volume? The importance of selecting the phenotype for imaging genetics studies. Neuroimage. 2010;53:1135–46.

  56. 56.

    Reuter M, Schmansky NJ, Rosas HD, Fischl B. Within-subject template estimation for unbiased longitudinal image analysis. Neuroimage. 2012;61:1402–18.

  57. 57.

    Fischl B, van der Kouwe A, Destrieux C, Halgren E, Segonne F, Salat DH, et al. Automatically parcellating the human cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2004;14:11–22.

  58. 58.

    Fischl B, Sereno MI, Dale AM. Cortical surface-based analysis. II: Inflation, flattening, and a surface-based coordinate system. Neuroimage. 1999;9:195–207.

  59. 59.

    Fischl B, Salat DH, van der Kouwe AJ, Makris N, Segonne F, Quinn BT, et al. Sequence-independent segmentation of magnetic resonance images. Neuroimage. 2004;23(Suppl 1):S69–84.

  60. 60.

    Fischl B, Dale AM. Measuring the thickness of the human cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance images. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000;97:11050–5.

  61. 61.

    Dale AM, Fischl B, Sereno MI. Cortical surface-based analysis. I. Segmentation and surface reconstruction. Neuroimage. 1999;9:179–94.

  62. 62.

    Desikan RS, Segonne F, Fischl B, Quinn BT, Dickerson BC, Blacker D, et al. An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest. Neuroimage. 2006;31:968–80.

  63. 63.

    Abe C, Ekman CJ, Sellgren C, Petrovic P, Ingvar M, Landen M. Manic episodes are related to changes in frontal cortex: a longitudinal neuroimaging study of bipolar disorder 1. Brain. 2015;138(Pt 11):3440–8.

  64. 64.

    Dennis M, Francis DJ, Cirino PT, Schachar R, Barnes MA, Fletcher JM. Why IQ is not a covariate in cognitive studies of neurodevelopmental disorders. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2009;15:331–43.

  65. 65.

    Logan GD, Cowan WB, Davis KA. On the ability to inhibit simple and choice reaction time responses: a model and a method. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1984;10:276–91.

  66. 66.

    Verbruggen F, Logan GD, Stevens MA. STOP-IT: Windows executable software for the stop-signal paradigm. Behav Res Methods. 2008;40:479–83.

  67. 67.

    Coull JT, Middleton HC, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ. Contrasting effects of clonidine and diazepam on tests of working memory and planning. Psychopharmacology. 1995;120:311–21.

  68. 68.

    Kempton S, Vance A, Maruff P, Luk E, Costin J, Pantelis C. Executive function and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: stimulant medication and better executive function performance in children. Psychol Med. 1999;29:527–38.

  69. 69.

    Nymberg C, Banaschewski T, Bokde AL, Buchel C, Conrod P, Flor H, et al. DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism modulates the effect of ventral striatal activation on working memory performance. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014;39:2357–65.

  70. 70.

    Kirby KN, Petry NM, Bickel WK. Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls. J Exp Psychol Gen. 1999;128:78–87.

  71. 71.

    Krause-Utz A, Oei NY, Niedtfeld I, Bohus M, Spinhoven P, Schmahl C, et al. Influence of emotional distraction on working memory performance in borderline personality disorder. Psychol Med. 2012;42:2181–92.

  72. 72.

    Prehn K, Schulze L, Rossmann S, Berger C, Vohs K, Fleischer M, et al. Effects of emotional stimuli on working memory processes in male criminal offenders with borderline and antisocial personality disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013;14:71–8.

  73. 73.

    Egner T, Etkin A, Gale S, Hirsch J. Dissociable neural systems resolve conflict from emotional versus nonemotional distracters. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:1475–84.

  74. 74.

    Etkin A, Egner T, Peraza DM, Kandel ER, Hirsch J. Resolving emotional conflict: a role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron. 2006;51:871–82.

  75. 75.

    Ochsner KN, Hughes B, Robertson ER, Cooper JC, Gabrieli JD. Neural systems supporting the control of affective and cognitive conflicts. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009;21:1842–55.

  76. 76.

    Rahm C, Liberg B, Wiberg-Kristoffersen M, Aspelin P, Msghina M. Rostro-caudal and dorso-ventral gradients in medial and lateral prefrontal cortex during cognitive control of affective and cognitive interference. Scand J Psychol. 2013;54:66–71.

  77. 77.

    Whalen PJ, Bush G, McNally RJ, Wilhelm S, McInerney SC, Jenike MA, et al. The emotional counting Stroop paradigm: a functional magnetic resonance imaging probe of the anterior cingulate affective division. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;44:1219–28.

  78. 78.

    Petrovic P, Dietrich T, Fransson P, Andersson J, Carlsson K, Ingvar M. Placebo in emotional processing--induced expectations of anxiety relief activate a generalized modulatory network. Neuron. 2005;46:957–69.

  79. 79.

    Schiller D, Delgado MR. Overlapping neural systems mediating extinction, reversal and regulation of fear. Trends Cogn Sci. 2010;14:268–76.

  80. 80.

    Gogtay N, Giedd JN, Lusk L, Hayashi KM, Greenstein D, Vaituzis AC, et al. Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101:8174–9.

  81. 81.

    Yarkoni T, Poldrack RA, Nichols TE, Van Essen DC, Wager TD. Large-scale automated synthesis of human functional neuroimaging data. Nat Methods. 2011;8:665–70.

  82. 82.

    Maier S, Perlov E, Graf E, Dieter E, Sobanski E, Rump M, et al. Discrete global but no focal gray matter volume reductions in unmedicated adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;80:905–15.

  83. 83.

    Reuter M, Tisdall MD, Qureshi A, Buckner RL, van der Kouwe AJ, Fischl B. Head motion during MRI acquisition reduces gray matter volume and thickness estimates. Neuroimage. 2015;107:107–15.

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work received support from the following sources: the European Union-funded FP6 Integrated Project IMAGEN (Reinforcement-related behavior in normal brain function and psychopathology) (LSHM-CT- 2007-037286), the Horizon 2020 funded ERC Advanced Grant ‘STRATIFY’ (Brain network based stratification of reinforcement-related disorders) (695313), ERANID (Understanding the Interplay between Cultural, Biological and Subjective Factors in Drug Use Pathways) (PR-ST-0416-10004), BRIDGET (JPND: BRain Imaging, cognition Dementia and next generation GEnomics) (MR/N027558/1), the FP7 projects IMAGEMEND(602450; IMAging GEnetics for MENtal Disorders) and MATRICS (603016), the Innovative Medicine Initiative Project EU-AIMS (115300-2), the Medical Research Council Grant ‘c-VEDA’ (Consortium on Vulnerability to Externalizing Disorders and Addictions) (MR/N000390/1), the Swedish Research Council FORMAS, the Medical Research Council, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London, the Bundesministeriumfür Bildung und Forschung (BMBF grants 01GS08152; 01EV0711; eMED SysAlc01ZX1311A; Forschungsnetz AERIAL), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG grants SM 80/7-1, SM 80/7-2, SFB 940/1). Further support was provided by grants from: ANR (project AF12-NEUR0008-01-WM2NA, and ANR-12-SAMA-0004), the Fondation de France, the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, the Mission Interministérielle de Lutte-contre-les-Drogues-et-les-Conduites-Addictives (MILDECA), the Assistance-Publique-Hôpitaux-de-Paris and INSERM (interface grant), Paris Sud University IDEX 2012; the National Institutes of Health, Science Foundation Ireland (16/ERCD/3797), U.S.A. (Axon, Testosterone and Mental Health during Adolescence; RO1 MH085772-01A1), and by NIH Consortium grant U54 EB020403, supported by a cross-NIH alliance that funds Big Data to Knowledge Centres of Excellence. Also grants from Karolinska Institutet, (Karolinska Institutet Strategic Neuroscience Program, Clinical Scientist Training Programme (CSTP), Senior Researcher in Medical Science), Stockholm County Council (PPG project), Stockholm Swedish Society of Medicine, Söderström-Königska Foundation and Osher Center for Integrative Medicine supported this study.

Author information

Author notes

  1. These authors contributed equally: Frida Bayard, Charlotte Nymberg.

Affiliations

  1. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

    • Frida Bayard
    • , Charlotte Nymberg Thunell
    • , Christoph Abé
    •  & Predrag Petrovic
  2. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

    • Rita Almeida
  3. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

    • Tobias Banaschewski
    • , Frauke Nees
    • , Maren Struve
    •  & Yvonne Grimmer
  4. Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK

    • Gareth Barker
  5. Discipline of Psychiatry, School of Medicine and Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

    • Arun L. W. Bokde
  6. University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, House W34, 3.OG, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany

    • Uli Bromberg
    • , Christian Büchel
    •  & Tahmine Fadai
  7. Centre for Population Neuroscience and Stratified Medicine (PONS) and MRC-SGDP Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK

    • Erin Burke Quinlan
    • , Sylvane Desrivières
    •  & Gunter Schumann
  8. Department of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

    • Herta Flor
    •  & Frauke Nees
  9. Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, University of Mannheim, 68131, Mannheim, Germany

    • Herta Flor
  10. NeuroSpin, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

    • Vincent Frouin
    •  & Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos
  11. Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA

    • Hugh Garavan
  12. Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, UK

    • Penny Gowland
  13. Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, Germany

    • Andreas Heinz
    •  & Henrik Walter
  14. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig and Berlin, Berlin, Germany

    • Bernd Ittermann
  15. Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, INSERM Unit 1000 “Neuroimaging and Psychiatry”, University Paris Sud–Paris Saclay, University Paris Descartes; Service Hospitalier Frédéric Joliot, Orsay; and Maison de Solenn, Paris, France

    • Jean-Luc Martinot
  16. Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, INSERM Unit 1000 “Neuroimaging and Psychiatry”, University Paris Sud–Paris Saclay, University Paris Descartes; and AP-HP, Department of Adolescent Psychopathology and Medicine, Maison de Solenn, Cochin Hospital, Paris, France

    • Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot
  17. Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest and Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M6A 2E1, Canada

    • Tomáš Paus
  18. Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria

    • Luise Poustka
  19. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Centre Göttingen, von-Siebold-Str. 5, 37075, Göttingen, Germany

    • Luise Poustka
  20. Department of Psychiatry, Université de Montréal, CHU Ste Justine Hospital, Montréal, QC, Canada

    • Patricia Conrod
  21. National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA

    • Argyris Stringaris
  22. Department of Social and Health Care, Psychosocial Services Adolescent Outpatient Clinic Kauppakatu 14, Lahti, Finland

    • Jani Penttilä
  23. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, Germany

    • Viola Kappel
  24. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, Germany

    • Betteke van Noort
  25. Department of Psychiatry and Neuroimaging Center, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany

    • Michael N. Smolka
    •  & Nora C. Vetter
  26. School of Psychology and Global Brain Health Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

    • Robert Whelan

Authors

  1. Search for Frida Bayard in:

  2. Search for Charlotte Nymberg Thunell in:

  3. Search for Christoph Abé in:

  4. Search for Rita Almeida in:

  5. Search for Tobias Banaschewski in:

  6. Search for Gareth Barker in:

  7. Search for Arun L. W. Bokde in:

  8. Search for Uli Bromberg in:

  9. Search for Christian Büchel in:

  10. Search for Erin Burke Quinlan in:

  11. Search for Sylvane Desrivières in:

  12. Search for Herta Flor in:

  13. Search for Vincent Frouin in:

  14. Search for Hugh Garavan in:

  15. Search for Penny Gowland in:

  16. Search for Andreas Heinz in:

  17. Search for Bernd Ittermann in:

  18. Search for Jean-Luc Martinot in:

  19. Search for Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot in:

  20. Search for Frauke Nees in:

  21. Search for Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos in:

  22. Search for Tomáš Paus in:

  23. Search for Luise Poustka in:

  24. Search for Patricia Conrod in:

  25. Search for Argyris Stringaris in:

  26. Search for Maren Struve in:

  27. Search for Jani Penttilä in:

  28. Search for Viola Kappel in:

  29. Search for Yvonne Grimmer in:

  30. Search for Tahmine Fadai in:

  31. Search for Betteke van Noort in:

  32. Search for Michael N. Smolka in:

  33. Search for Nora C. Vetter in:

  34. Search for Henrik Walter in:

  35. Search for Robert Whelan in:

  36. Search for Gunter Schumann in:

  37. Search for Predrag Petrovic in:

Consortia

  1. the IMAGEN Consortium

    Conflict of interest

    Dr. TB served in an advisory or consultancy role for Actelion, Hexal Pharma, Lilly, Lundbeck, Medice, Novartis, Shire. He received conference support or speaker’s fee by Lilly, Medice, Novartis, and Shire. He has been involved in clinical trials conducted by Shire and Viforpharma. He received royalities from Hogrefe, Kohlhammer, CIP Medien, Oxford University Press. The present work is unrelated to the above grants and relationships. Dr. GB has received funding for a PhD student and honoraria for teaching on scanner programming courses from General Electric Healthcare; he acts as a consultant for IXICO. Dr. HW received a speaker honorarium from Servier (2014). The remaining authors declare no conflict of interest.

    Corresponding author

    Correspondence to Predrag Petrovic.

    Electronic supplementary material

    About this article

    Publication history

    Received

    Revised

    Accepted

    Published

    DOI

    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-018-0202-6