Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-cell malignancy, which is associated with profound alterations and defects in the immune system and a prevalent dependency on the microenvironmental niche. An abnormal T-cell compartment in the blood of CLL patients was already reported 40 years ago. Since then, our knowledge of T-cell characteristics in CLL has grown steadily, but the question of whether T-cells act as pro-tumoral bystander cells or possess anti-tumoral activity is still under debate. Increased numbers of CD4+ T-helper cell subsets are present in the blood of CLL patients, and T-helper cell cytokines have been shown to stimulate CLL cell survival and proliferation in vitro. In line with this, survival and growth of CLL cells in murine xenograft models have been shown to rely on activated CD4+ T-cells. This led to the hypothesis that T-cells are tumor-supportive in CLL. In recent years, evidence for an enrichment of antigen-experienced CD8+ T-cells in CLL has accumulated, and these cells have been shown to control leukemia in a CLL mouse model. Based on this, it was suggested that CD8+ T-cells recognize CLL-specific antigens and exert an anti-leukemia function. As described for other cancer entities, T-cells in CLL express multiple inhibitory receptors, such as PD-1, and lose their functional capacity, leading to an exhaustion phenotype which has been shown to be more severe in T-cells from secondary lymphoid organs compared with peripheral blood. This exhausted phenotype has been suggested to be causative for the poor response of CLL patients to CAR T-cell therapies. In addition, T-cells have been shown to be affected by drugs that are used to treat CLL, which likely impacts therapy response. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about alterations of T-cells in CLL, including their distribution, function, and exhaustion state in blood and lymphoid organs, and touches also on the topic of how CLL drugs impact on the T-cell compartment and recent results of T-cell-based immunotherapy. We will discuss potential pathological roles of T-cell subsets in CLL and address the question of whether they foster progression or control of disease.
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The authors would like to thank Dr. Selcen Öztürk, Laura Llaó Cid, and Dr. Emma Philipps for their critical revision of the manuscript. Graphs were created with BioRender.com.
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Roessner, P.M., Seiffert, M. T-cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Guardians or drivers of disease?. Leukemia 34, 2012–2024 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0873-2