Role of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in the progression of mouse juvenile cystic kidney disease

Abstract

A hallmark of polycystic kidney diseases (PKDs) is aberrant proliferation, which leads to the formation and growth of renal cysts. Proliferation is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), and the administration of roscovitine (a pan-Cdk inhibitor) attenuates renal cystic disease in juvenile cystic kidney (jck) mice. Cdk2 is a key regulator of cell proliferation, but its specific role in PKD remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that Cdk2 deficiency reduces renal cyst growth in PKD. Three studies were undertaken: (i) a time course (days 28, 56, and 84) of cyclin and Cdk activity was examined in jck mice and compared with wild-type mice; (ii) the progression was compared in jck mice with or without Cdk2 ablation from birth; and (iii) the effect of sirolimus (an antiproliferative agent) on Cdk2 activity in jck mice was investigated. Renal disease in jck mice was characterized by diffuse tubular cyst growth, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, and renal impairment, peaking on day 84. Renal cell proliferation peaked during earlier stages of disease (days 28–56), whereas the expression of Cdk2-cyclin partners (A and E) and Cdk1 and 2 activity, was maximal in the later stages of disease (days 56–84). Cdk2 ablation did not attenuate renal disease progression and was associated with persistent Cdk1 activity. In contrast, the postnatal treatment of jck mice with sirolimus reduced both Cdk2 and Cdk1 activity and reduced renal cyst growth. In conclusion, (i) the kinetics of Cdk2 and Cdk2-cyclin partners did not correlate with proliferation in jck mice; and (ii) the absence of Cdk2 did not alter renal cyst growth, most likely due to compensation by Cdk1. Taken together, these data suggest that Cdk2 is dispensable for the proliferation of cystic epithelial cells and progression of PKD.

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Fig. 1: The roles of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) and cyclin complexes in polycystic kidney disease (PKD).
Fig. 2: Progression of cystic renal disease in male wild-type (wt) and juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice on day 28, 56, and 84.
Fig. 3: Renal cell proliferation in male wild-type (wt) and juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice, assessed by immunohistochemistry using Ki-67, on day 28, 56, and 84.
Fig. 4: Histological markers of kidney disease progression in male wild-type (wt) and juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice on day 28, 56, and 84.
Fig. 5: Relative expression of cyclins measured by western blot using nuclear extracts from whole kidney tissues in male wild-type (wt) and juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice on day 28, 56 and 84.
Fig. 6: Expression of cyclins measured by immunohistochemistry in kidney tissue of male wild-type (wt) and juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice on day 28, 56, and 84.
Fig. 7: Expression of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and its phosphorylated form (pRb), measured by western blot and immunohistochemistry, in male wild-type (wt) and juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice on day 28, 56, and 84.
Fig. 8: The histone H1-kinase activity and western blot analysis of immunoprecipitated cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) from male wild-type (wt) and juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice on day 28, 56, and 84.
Fig. 9: Progression of cystic renal disease in male and female juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice in the absence or presence of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) on day 84.
Fig. 10: Histological markers of kidney disease progression in male and female wild-type (wt) and juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice in the absence or presence of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) on day 84.
Fig. 11: Representative photomicrographs from juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice in the absence or presence of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) on day 84, showing the origin of the cystic epithelial cells.
Fig. 12: The histone H1-kinase activity and western blot analysis of immunoprecipitated cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) from juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice in the absence or presence of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), and with and without treatment with sirolimus.
Fig. 13: Progression of cystic renal disease in male and female juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice with and without treatment with sirolimus from day 28 until day 43. jck/Cdk2+/+ mice received no treatment (vehicle) or treatment with sirolimus at 0.5 mg/kg body weight/day or 1.0 mg/kg body weight/day.
Fig. 14: Expression of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), phosphorylated S6 (pS6) ribosomal protein and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb), measured by immunohistochemistry, in juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice with and without treatment with sirolimus on day 43.
Fig. 15: Relative expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), measured by western blot, using whole kidney tissue extracts from male and female wild-type (wt) and juvenile cystic kidney (jck) disease mice in the absence or presence of Cdk2 on day 84.

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Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (Project Grant No 457575, 632647, 1164128, 1138533) and the PKD Foundation of Australia. JZ is supported by a Research Training Program Stipend from the University of Sydney. SS is supported by a grant from the PKD Foundation of Australia, and PK by the Biomedical Research Council of A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore.

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Correspondence to Jennifer Qin Jing Zhang.

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Zhang, J.Q.J., Burgess, J., Stepanova, D. et al. Role of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in the progression of mouse juvenile cystic kidney disease. Lab Invest (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-019-0360-4

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