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Risk factors for death during newborn and post-newborn hospitalizations among preterm infants



To examine risk factors for mortality among preterm infants during newborn and subsequent hospitalizations, and whether they differ by race/ethnicity.

Study design

We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using the 2016 Kids Inpatient Database. Hospitalizations of preterm infants were categorized as “newborn” for birth admissions, and “post-newborn” for all others. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to calculate associations of mortality with sociodemographic factors.


Of 285915 hospitalizations, there were 7827 (2.7%) deaths. During newborn hospitalizations, adjusted OR (aOR) of death equaled 1.14 (95% CI 1.09–1.20) for males, 68.73 (61.91–76.30) for <29 weeks GA, and 0.81 (0.71–0.92) for transfer. Stratified by race/ethnicity, aOR was 0.69 (0.61–0.71) for Medicaid only among black infants. During post-newborn hospitalizations, death was associated with transfer (aOR 5.02, 3.31–7.61).


Risk factors for death differ by hospitalization types and race/ethnicity. Analysis by hospitalization types may identify risk factors that inform public health interventions for reducing infant mortality.

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Data availability

Datasets utilized in the paper are publicly available through the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality at


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Authors and Affiliations



Drs. Matoba and Davis conceptualized and designed the study and drafted the initial manuscript. Dr. Kwon carried out the statistical analyses, reviewed and revised the manuscript. Drs. Collins and Davis critically reviewed the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

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Correspondence to Nana Matoba.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Matoba, N., Kwon, S., Collins, J.W. et al. Risk factors for death during newborn and post-newborn hospitalizations among preterm infants. J Perinatol 42, 1288–1293 (2022).

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