This study investigated the impact of probiotic supplementation on the gene expressions of cluster of differentiation (CD) as cell markers and the concentrations of antibodies and cytokines in human milk.
Gene expressions of CD28, CD19, and CD38 were determined in milk from 15 women ingesting daily probiotics (from Greek yogurt) and 12 women who do not consume probiotics. Concentrations of antibodies and cytokines were measured using ELISA.
Gene expression of CD28 tended to be higher in milk from mothers ingesting daily probiotics than mothers who did not take probiotics. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration in milk was higher in mothers ingesting probiotics than those who do not consume probiotics. The increase of IL-6 level in human milk was positively correlated with total IgA and IgG concentrations.
Probiotic supplementation could enhance the secretion of IL-6 in human milk. Human milk IL-6 may improve neonatal immunity due to its stimulation of total IgA and IgG.
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We thank all study participants for their valuable contributions.
The authors (VD-M, GBM, CD, and ED) disclosed receipt of the financial support from Medolac Laboratories A Public Benefit Corporation for the conduct of the study.
Conflict of interest
VD-M, GBM, CD, and EM are employees of Medolac Laboratories.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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Demers-Mathieu, V., Mathijssen, G.B., DaPra, C. et al. The effects of probiotic supplementation on the gene expressions of immune cell surface markers and levels of antibodies and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human milk. J Perinatol 41, 1083–1091 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-020-00875-w