Impact of human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, and tuberculosis on adverse pregnancy outcomes in the United States

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To compare rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria-infected patients in the United States with those of uninfected patients.

Study design

A nationally representative sample of 24,149,664 singleton live births were identified using pregnancy hospitalizations that resulted in delivery between 1998–2000 and 2009–2011 in this retrospective cohort study. Maternal and fetal outcomes were evaluated.


There were 7204 HIV cases, 1450 TB cases, and 296 malaria cases over the two time periods, and the average age of infected subjects was 28.3. The HIV group was more likely to have almost all adverse pregnancy outcomes than the control group in both time periods. The 2009–2011 HIV group was more likely to undergo cesarean delivery than the 1998–2000 HIV group [1959 versus 1649, p < 0.0001].


Out of pregnant women infected with HIV, malaria, or tuberculosis, those infected with HIV are more likely to experience several adverse pregnancy outcomes than uninfected women.

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Correspondence to Homa K. Ahmadzia.

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