Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share major risk factors and mechanistic pathways for progression. Furthermore, either decreased glomerular filtration rate or increased albuminuria are major risk factors for cardiovascular events. Evidence from previous renal outcome trials in patients with proteinuric CKD showed that angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) effectively slow CKD progression, establishing these agents as fundamental CKD pharmacologic treatments. However, in all these trials and subsequent meta-analyses, ACEIs and ARBs did not significantly reduce cardiovascular events or mortality, indicating a high residual risk for CVD progression in individuals with CKD. In contrast to the above, several outcome trials with old and novel mineralocorticoid receptor-antagonists (MRAs) clearly suggest that these agents, apart from nephroprotection, offer important cardioprotection in this population. This article is an overview of previous and recent evidence on the effects of MRAs on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD attempting to highlight a pathway able to improve both cardiovascular and renal prognosis in this population.
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PS is an advisor/speaker to Amgen, Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Elpen Pharmaceuticals, Genesis Pharma, Menarini, Innovis Pharma, Sanofi, Winmedica and has received research support for an Investigator-Initiated Study from Astra Zeneca. MA, MPT, and MK have no competing interests in relation to the work described.
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Alexandrou, ME., Theodorakopoulou, M.P., Kanbay, M. et al. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for cardioprotection in chronic kidney disease: a step into the future. J Hum Hypertens (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41371-021-00641-1