Epidemiological data support the view that both obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) account for a high proportion of total morbidity and mortality in adults throughout the world. Obesity and CVD have complex interplay mechanisms of genetic and environmental factors, including diet. Nutrition is an environmental factor and it has a predominant and recognizable role in health management and in the prevention of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including CVD. However, there is a marked variation in CVD in patients with obesity and the same dietary pattern. The different genetic polymorphisms could explain this variation, which leads to the emergence of the concept of nutrigenetics. Nutritional genomics or nutrigenetics is the science that studies and characterizes gene variants associated with differential response to specific nutrients and relating this variation to various diseases, such as CVD related to obesity. Thus, the personalized nutrition recommendations, based on the knowledge of an individual’s genetic background, might improve the outcomes of a specific dietary intervention and represent a new dietary approach to improve health, reducing obesity and CVD. Given these premises, it is intuitive to suppose that the elucidation of diet and gene interactions could support more specific and effective dietary interventions in both obesity and CVD prevention through personalized nutrition based on nutrigenetics. This review aims to briefly summarize the role of the most important genes associated with obesity and CVD and to clarify the knowledge about the relation between nutrition and gene expression and the role of the main nutrition-related genes in obesity and CVD.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
We are sorry, but there is no personal subscription option available for your country.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Karczewski J, Sledzinska E, Baturo A, Jonczyk I, Maleszko A, Samborski P, et al. Obesity and inflammation. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2018;29:83–94.
Goodarzi MO. Genetics of obesity: what genetic association studies have taught us about the biology of obesity and its complications. Lancet. 2018;6:223–36.
Ordovas JM, Corella D. Nutritional genomics. Ann Rev Genom Hum Genet. 2004;5:71–118.
Webb TR, Erdmann J, Stirrups KE, Stitziel NO, Masca NG, Jansen H, et al. Systematic evaluation of pleiotropy identifies 6 further loci associated with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69:823–36.
Vazquez-Vidal I, Desmarchelier C, Jones PJH. Nutrigenetics of blood cholesterol concentrations: towards personalized nutrition. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2019;21:38.
El-Sohemy A. Nutrigenetics. Forum Nutr. 2007;60:25–30.
Williams CM, Ordovas JM, Lairon D, Hesketh J, Lietz G, Gibney M, et al. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 1: linking genotype to healthy nutrition. Genes Nutr. 2008;3:41–9.
Gregori D, Foltran F, Verduci E, Ballali S, Franchin L, Ghidina M, et al. A genetic perspective on nutritional profiles: do we still need them? J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2011;4:25–35.
Elsamanoudy AZ, Mohamed Neamat-Allah MA, Hisham Mohammad FA, Hassanien M, Nada HA. The role of nutrition related genes and nutrigenetics in understanding the pathogenesis of cancer. J Microsc Ultrastruct. 2016;4:115–22.
DeBusk RM, Fogarty CP, Ordovas JM, Kornman KS. Nutritional genomics in practice: where do we begin? J Am Dietetic Association. 2005;105:589–98.
Elder SJ, Lichtenstein AH, Pittas AG, Roberts SB, Fuss PJ, Greenberg AS, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on factors associated with cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:1917–26.
Ordovas JM, Corella D, Cupples LA, Demissie S, Kelleher A, Coltell O, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the effects of the APOA1 G-A polymorphism on HDL-cholesterol concentrations in a sex-specific manner: the Framingham Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:38–46.
Xu M, Zhao J, Zhang Y, Ma X, Dai Q, Zhi H, et al. Apolipoprotein E gene variants and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. BioMed Res Int. 2016;2016:3912175.
Tapsell LC, Neale EP, Satija A, Hu FB. Foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns: interconnections and implications for dietary guidelines. Adv Nutr. 2016;7:445–54.
Celis-Morales C, Livingstone KM, Marsaux CF, Forster H, O’Donovan CB, Woolhead C, et al. Design and baseline characteristics of the Food4Me study: a web-based randomised controlled trial of personalised nutrition in seven European countries. Genes Nutr. 2015;10:450.
Fallaize R, Celis-Morales C, Macready AL, Marsaux CF, Forster H, O’Donovan C, et al. The effect of the apolipoprotein E genotype on response to personalized dietary advice intervention: findings from the Food4Me randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104:827–36.
Corella D, Asensio EM, Coltell O, Sorli JV, Estruch R, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, et al. CLOCK gene variation is associated with incidence of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in type-2 diabetic subjects: dietary modulation in the PREDIMED randomized trial. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016;15:4.
Ortega-Azorin C, Sorli JV, Estruch R, Asensio EM, Coltell O, Gonzalez JI, et al. Amino acid change in the carbohydrate response element binding protein is associated with lower triglycerides and myocardial infarction incidence depending on level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the PREDIMED trial. Circulation. 2014;7:49–58.
Roncero-Ramos I, Rangel-Zuniga OA, Lopez-Moreno J, Alcala-Diaz JF, Perez-Martinez P, Jimenez-Lucena R, et al. Mediterranean diet, glucose homeostasis, and inflammasome genetic variants: The CORDIOPREV Study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018;62:e1700960.
de Toro-Martin J, Arsenault BJ, Despres JP, Vohl MC. Precision nutrition: a review of personalized nutritional approaches for the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome. Nutrients. 2017;9:913–41
Koliaki C, Liatis S, Kokkinos A. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: revisiting an old relationship. Metabolism. 2019;92:98–107.
Alpert MA. Obesity cardiomyopathy: pathophysiology and evolution of the clinical syndrome. Am J Med Sci. 2001;321:225–36.
Chakko S, Mayor M, Allison MD, Kessler KM, Materson BJ, Myerburg RJ. Abnormal left ventricular diastolic filling in eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy of obesity. Am J Cardiol. 1991;68:95–8.
Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Ventura HO, Cardenas GA, Mehra MR, Messerli FH. Disparate effects of left ventricular geometry and obesity on mortality in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Am J Cardiol. 2007;100:1460–4.
Kershaw EE, Flier JS. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:2548–56.
Nakamura K, Fuster JJ, Walsh K. Adipokines: a link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. J Cardiol. 2014;63:250–9.
Koh KK, Park SM, Quon MJ. Leptin and cardiovascular disease: response to therapeutic interventions. Circulation. 2008;117:3238–49.
Guglielmi V, Sbraccia P. Epicardial adipose tissue: at the heart of the obesity complications. Acta Diabetol. 2017;54:805–12.
Bleau C, Karelis AD, St-Pierre DH, Lamontagne L. Crosstalk between intestinal microbiota, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as an early event in systemic low-grade inflammation and the development of obesity and diabetes. Diabetes/Metab Res Rev. 2015;31:545–61.
Li XS, Obeid S, Klingenberg R, Gencer B, Mach F, Raber L, et al. Gut microbiota-dependent trimethylamine N-oxide in acute coronary syndromes: a prognostic marker for incident cardiovascular events beyond traditional risk factors. Eur Heart J. 2017;38:814–24.
Randrianarisoa E, Lehn-Stefan A, Wang X, Hoene M, Peter A, Heinzmann SS, et al. Relationship of serum trimethylamine n-oxide (TMAO) levels with early atherosclerosis in humans. Sci Rep. 2016;6:26745.
Haghikia A, Li XS, Liman TG, Bledau N, Schmidt D, Zimmermann F, et al. Gut microbiota-dependent trimethylamine N-oxide predicts risk of cardiovascular events in patients with stroke and is related to proinflammatory monocytes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2018;38:2225–35.
Liang Z, Dong Z, Guo M, Shen Z, Yin D, Hu S, et al. Trimethylamine N-oxide as a risk marker for ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2019;33:e22246.
Nie J, Xie L, Zhao BX, Li Y, Qiu B, Zhu F, et al. Serum trimethylamine N-oxide concentration is positively associated with first stroke in hypertensive patients. Stroke. 2018;49:2021–8.
Wu C, Li C, Zhao W, Xie N, Yan F, Lian Y, et al. Elevated trimethylamine N-oxide related to ischemic brain lesions after carotid artery stenting. Neurology. 2018;90:e1283–e1290.
Tang WH, Wang Z, Fan Y, Levison B, Hazen JE, Donahue LM, et al. Prognostic value of elevated levels of intestinal microbe-generated metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide in patients with heart failure: refining the gut hypothesis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64:1908–14.
Barrea L, Annunziata G, Muscogiuri G, Di Somma C, Laudisio D, Maisto M, et al. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) as novel potential biomarker of early predictors of metabolic syndrome. Nutrients. 2018;10:1971–90
LaRocca TJ, Martens CR, Seals DR. Nutrition and other lifestyle influences on arterial aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2017;39:106–19.
Bhatnagar A. Environmental determinants of cardiovascular disease. Circ Res. 2017;121:162–80.
Masana L, Ros E, Sudano I, Angoulvant D. lifestyle expert working group Is there a role for lifestyle changes in cardiovascular prevention? What, when and how?. Atheroscler Suppl. 2017;26:2–15.
Khanji MY, van Waardhuizen CN, Bicalho VVS, Ferket BS, Hunink MGM, Petersen SE. Lifestyle advice and interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review of guidelines. Int J Cardiol. 2018;263:142–51.
Torres N, Guevara-Cruz M, Velazquez-Villegas LA, Tovar AR. Nutrition and atherosclerosis. Arch Med Res. 2015;46:408–26.
Venter JC, Adams MD, Myers EW, Li PW, Mural RJ, Sutton GG, et al. The sequence of the human genome. Science. 2001;291:1304–51.
Bordoni L, Gabbianelli R. Primers on nutrigenetics and nutri(epi)genomics: origins and development of precision nutrition. Biochimie. 2019;160:156–71.
Lloyd-Jones DM, Nam BH, D’Agostino RB Sr., Levy D, Murabito JM, Wang TJ, et al. Parental cardiovascular disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults: a prospective study of parents and offspring. JAMA. 2004;291:2204–11.
Govindaraju DR, Adrienne Cupples L, Kannel WB, O’Donnell CJ, Atwood LD, D’Agostino RB Sr., et al. Genetics of the Framingham Heart Study population. Adv Genet. 2008;62:33–65.
Larson MG, Atwood LD, Benjamin EJ, Cupples LA, D’Agostino RB Sr., Fox CS, et al. Framingham Heart Study 100K project: genome-wide associations for cardiovascular disease outcomes. BMC Med Genet. 2007;8 Suppl 1:S5.
Consortium CAD, Deloukas P, Kanoni S, Willenborg C, Farrall M, Assimes TL, et al. Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease. Nat Genet. 2013;45:25–33.
Borel P, Desmarchelier C, Nowicki M, Bott R. A combination of single-nucleotide polymorphisms is associated with interindividual variability in dietary beta-carotene bioavailability in healthy men. J Nutr. 2015;145:1740–7.
Borel P, Desmarchelier C, Nowicki M, Bott R. Lycopene bioavailability is associated with a combination of genetic variants. Free Radic Biol Med. 2015;83:238–44.
Borel P, Desmarchelier C, Nowicki M, Bott R, Tourniaire F. Can genetic variability in alpha-tocopherol bioavailability explain the heterogeneous response to alpha-tocopherol supplements? Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015;22:669–78.
Desmarchelier C, Martin JC, Planells R, Gastaldi M, Nowicki M, Goncalves A, et al. The postprandial chylomicron triacylglycerol response to dietary fat in healthy male adults is significantly explained by a combination of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in triacylglycerol metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:E484–8.
Luft FC, Weinberger MH. Heterogeneous responses to changes in dietary salt intake: the salt-sensitivity paradigm. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65 2 Suppl:612S–617S.
Ferguson LR, De Caterina R, Gorman U, Allayee H, Kohlmeier M, Prasad C, et al. Guide and position of the international society of nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics on personalised nutrition: part 1—fields of precision nutrition. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2016;9:12–27.
Wittwer J, Rubio-Aliaga I, Hoeft B, Bendik I, Weber P, Daniel H. Nutrigenomics in human intervention studies: current status, lessons learned and future perspectives. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:341–58.
Ross LJ, Barnes KA, Ball LE, Mitchell LJ, Sladdin I, Lee P, et al. Effectiveness of dietetic consultation for lowering blood lipid levels in the management of cardiovascular disease risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Nutr Diet. 2019;76:199–210.
Shivappa N, Godos J, Hebert JR, Wirth MD, Piuri G, Speciani AF, et al. Dietary inflammatory index and cardiovascular risk and mortality-a meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2018;10:200–15.
Ordovas JM, Corella D. Genetic variation and lipid metabolism: modulation by dietary factors. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2005;7:480–6.
Chilton FH, Murphy RC, Wilson BA, Sergeant S, Ainsworth H, Seeds MC, et al. Diet-gene interactions and PUFA metabolism: a potential contributor to health disparities and human diseases. Nutrients. 2014;6:1993–2022.
O’Neill CM, Minihane AM. The impact of fatty acid desaturase genotype on fatty acid status and cardiovascular health in adults. Proc Nutr Soc. 2017;76:64–75.
Zheng JS, Chen J, Wang L, Yang H, Fang L, Yu Y, et al. Replication of a gene-diet interaction at CD36, NOS3 and PPARG in response to omega-3 fatty acid supplements on blood lipids: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. EBioMedicine. 2018;31:150–6.
Ferguson JF, Phillips CM, McMonagle J, Perez-Martinez P, Shaw DI, Lovegrove JA, et al. NOS3 gene polymorphisms are associated with risk markers of cardiovascular disease, and interact with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Atherosclerosis. 2010;211:539–44.
Armstrong P, Kelley DS, Newman JW, Staggers FE Sr., Hartiala J, Allayee H, et al. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene variants affect response to fish oil supplementation by healthy African Americans. J Nutr. 2012;142:1417–28.
Matualatupauw JC, Radonjic M, van de Rest O, de Groot LC, Geleijnse JM, Muller M, et al. Apolipoprotein E genotype status affects habitual human blood mononuclear cell gene expression and its response to fish oil intervention. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016;60:1649–60.
Vallee Marcotte B, Cormier H, Rudkowska I, Lemieux S, Couture P, Vohl MC. Polymorphisms in FFAR4 (GPR120) gene modulate insulin levels and sensitivity after fish oil supplementation. J Pers Med. 2017;7:15–27.
Vallee Marcotte B, Guenard F, Lemieux S, Couture P, Rudkowska I, Calder PC, et al. Fine mapping of genome-wide association study signals to identify genetic markers of the plasma triglyceride response to an omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019;109:176–85.
Reddy VS, Palika R, Ismail A, Pullakhandam R, Reddy GB. Nutrigenomics: opportunities & challenges for public health nutrition. Indian J Med Res. 2018;148:632–41.
Selhub J. Folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 and one carbon metabolism. J Nutr Health Aging. 2002;6:39–42.
Ridker PM, Shih J, Cook TJ, Clearfield M, Downs JR, Pradhan AD, et al. Plasma homocysteine concentration, statin therapy, and the risk of first acute coronary events. Circulation. 2002;105:1776–9.
Selhub J. The many facets of hyperhomocysteinemia: studies from the Framingham cohorts. J Nutr. 2006;136 6 Suppl:1726S–30S.
Djuric D, Jakovljevic V, Zivkovic V, Srejovic I. Homocysteine and homocysteine-related compounds: an overview of the roles in the pathology of the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018;96:991–1003.
Cesari M, Burlina AB, Narkiewicz K, Sartori MT, Sacchetto A, Rossi GP. Are fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine levels heritable? A study of normotensive twins. J Investig Med. 2000;48:351–8.
Vermeulen SH, van der Vleuten GM, de Graaf J, Hermus AR, Blom HJ, Stalenhoef AF, et al. A genome-wide linkage scan for homocysteine levels suggests three regions of interest. J Throm Haemost. 2006;4:1303–7.
Hazra A, Kraft P, Lazarus R, Chen C, Chanock SJ, Jacques P, et al. Genome-wide significant predictors of metabolites in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:4677–87.
Colson NJ, Naug HL, Nikbakht E, Zhang P, McCormack J. The impact of MTHFR 677 C/T genotypes on folate status markers: a meta-analysis of folic acid intervention studies. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56:247–60.
Du B, Tian H, Tian D, Zhang C, Wang W, Wang L, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of key enzymes in folate metabolism affect the efficacy of folate therapy in patients with hyperhomocysteinaemia. Br J Nutr. 2018;119:887–95.
Kheiri B, Abdalla A, Osman M, Ahmed S, Hassan M, Bachuwa G. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular diseases: a narrative review. Clin Hypertens. 2018;24:9.
Pilz S, Tomaschitz A, Drechsler C, Zittermann A, Dekker JM, Marz W. Vitamin D supplementation: a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of strokes. Curr Drug Targets. 2011;12:88–96.
Pereira-Santos M, Costa PR, Assis AM, Santos CA, Santos DB. Obesity and vitamin D deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2015;16:341–9.
Savastano S, Barrea L, Savanelli MC, Nappi F, Di Somma C, Orio F, et al. Low vitamin D status and obesity: role of nutritionist. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017;18:215–25.
Wang TJ, Zhang F, Richards JB, Kestenbaum B, van Meurs JB, Berry D, et al. Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study. Lancet. 2010;376:180–8.
Uitterlinden AG, Fang Y, Van Meurs JB, Pols HA, Van Leeuwen JP. Genetics and biology of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. Gene. 2004;338:143–56.
Al-Daghri NM, Mohammed AK, Al-Attas OS, Ansari MGA, Wani K, Hussain SD, et al. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms modify cardiometabolic response to vitamin D supplementation in T2DM patients. Sci Rep. 2017;7:8280.
Zhang M, Zhao LJ, Zhou Y, Badr R, Watson P, Ye A, et al. SNP rs11185644 of RXRA gene is identified for dose-response variability to vitamin D3 supplementation: a randomized clinical trial. Sci Rep. 2017;7:40593.
Neyestani TR, Djazayery A, Shab-Bidar S, Eshraghian MR, Kalayi A, Shariatzadeh N, et al. Vitamin D receptor Fok-I polymorphism modulates diabetic host response to vitamin D intake: need for a nutrigenetic approach. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:550–6.
Hu T, Bazzano LA. The low-carbohydrate diet and cardiovascular risk factors: evidence from epidemiologic studies. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;24:337–43.
Gardner CD, Trepanowski JF, Del Gobbo LC, Hauser ME, Rigdon J, Ioannidis JPA, et al. Effect of low-fat vs low-carbohydrate diet on 12-month weight loss in overweight adults and the association with genotype pattern or insulin secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2018;319:667–79.
Sun D, Heianza Y, Li X, Shang X, Smith SR, Bray GA, et al. Genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional variations at NFATC2IP locus with weight loss in response to diet interventions: The POUNDS Lost Trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018;20:2298–303.
Qi Q, Durst R, Schwarzfuchs D, Leitersdorf E, Shpitzen S, Li Y, et al. CETP genotype and changes in lipid levels in response to weight-loss diet intervention in the POUNDS LOST and DIRECT randomized trials. J Lipid Res. 2015;56:713–21.
Goni L, Qi L, Cuervo M, Milagro FI, Saris WH, MacDonald IA, et al. Effect of the interaction between diet composition and the PPM1K genetic variant on insulin resistance and beta cell function markers during weight loss: results from the Nutrient Gene Interactions in Human Obesity: implications for dietary guidelines (NUGENOB) randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106:902–8.
Santos JL, De la Cruz R, Holst C, Grau K, Naranjo C, Maiz A, et al. Allelic variants of melanocortin 3 receptor gene (MC3R) and weight loss in obesity: a randomised trial of hypo-energetic high- versus low-fat diets. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19934.
de Luis DA, Izaola O, Primo D, Aller R, Ortola A, Gomez E, et al. The association of SNP276G>T at adiponectin gene with insulin resistance and circulating adiponectin in response to two different hypocaloric diets. Diabetes Res and Clin Pract. 2018;137:93–99.
Zheng Y, Huang T, Zhang X, Rood J, Bray GA, Sacks FM, et al. Dietary fat modifies the effects of FTO genotype on changes in insulin sensitivity. J Nutr. 2015;145:977–82.
Huang T, Zheng Y, Hruby A, Williamson DA, Bray GA, Shen Y, et al. Dietary protein modifies the effect of the MC4R genotype on 2-year changes in appetite and food craving: The POUNDS Lost Trial. J Nutr. 2017;147:439–44.
Huang T, Qi Q, Li Y, Hu FB, Bray GA, Sacks FM, et al. FTO genotype, dietary protein, and change in appetite: the preventing overweight using novel dietary strategies trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99:1126–30.
Curti ML, Rogero MM, Baltar VT, Barros CR, Siqueira-Catania A, Ferreira SR. FTO T/A and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma Pro12Ala polymorphisms but not ApoA1-75 are associated with better response to lifestyle intervention in Brazilians at high cardiometabolic risk. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2013;11:169–76.
de Luis DA, Izaola O, de la Fuente B, Primo D, Aller R. Polymorphism of neuropeptide Y gene rs16147 modifies the response to a hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular risk biomarkers and adipokines. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2017;30:159–65.
Garaulet M, Vera B, Bonnet-Rubio G, Gomez-Abellan P, Lee YC, Ordovas JM. Lunch eating predicts weight-loss effectiveness in carriers of the common allele at PERILIPIN1: the ONTIME (Obesity, Nutrigenetics, Timing, Mediterranean) study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104:1160–6.
San-Cristobal R, Navas-Carretero S, Livingstone KM, Celis-Morales C, Macready AL, Fallaize R, et al. Mediterranean diet adherence and genetic background roles within a web-based nutritional intervention: The Food4Me Study. Nutrients. 2017;9:1107–24.
Di Renzo L, Cioccoloni G, Falco S, Abenavoli L, Moia A, Sinibaldi Salimei P, et al. Influence of FTO rs9939609 and Mediterranean diet on body composition and weight loss: a randomized clinical trial. J Transl Med. 2018;16:308.
Dinu M, Pagliai G, Casini A, Sofi F. Mediterranean diet and multiple health outcomes: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018;72:30–43.
Widmer RJ, Flammer AJ, Lerman LO, Lerman A. The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Med. 2015;128:229–38.
Mayneris-Perxachs J, Sala-Vila A, Chisaguano M, Castellote AI, Estruch R, Covas MI, et al. Effects of 1-year intervention with a Mediterranean diet on plasma fatty acid composition and metabolic syndrome in a population at high cardiovascular risk. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e85202.
Esposito K, Kastorini CM, Panagiotakos DB, Giugliano D. Mediterranean diet and weight loss: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2011;9:1–12.
Bendall CL, Mayr HL, Opie RS, Bes-Rastrollo M, Itsiopoulos C, Thomas CJ. Central obesity and the Mediterranean diet: a systematic review of intervention trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2018;58:3070–84.
Garcia-Calzon S, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Razquin C, Corella D, Salas-Salvado J, Martinez JA, et al. Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARgamma2 gene interacts with a mediterranean diet to prevent telomere shortening in the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomized trial. Circulation. 2015;8:91–9.
Ortega-Azorin C, Sorli JV, Asensio EM, Coltell O, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Salas-Salvado J, et al. Associations of the FTO rs9939609 and the MC4R rs17782313 polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes are modulated by diet, being higher when adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern is low. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:137.
Hussain T, Tan B, Yin Y, Blachier F, Tossou MC, Rahu N. Oxidative stress and inflammation: what polyphenols can do for us? Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:7432797.
Kowalska K, Socha E, Milnerowicz H. Review: the role of paraoxonase in cardiovascular diseases. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2015;45:226–33.
Rizzi F, Conti C, Dogliotti E, Terranegra A, Salvi E, Braga D, et al. Interaction between polyphenols intake and PON1 gene variants on markers of cardiovascular disease: a nutrigenetic observational study. J Transl Med. 2016;14:186.
Annunziata G, Maisto M, Schisano C, Ciampaglia R, Narciso V, Hassan STS, et al. Effect of grape pomace polyphenols with or without pectin on TMAO serum levels assessed by LC/MS-based assay: a preliminary clinical study on overweight/obese subjects. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:575.
Annunziata G, Maisto M, Schisano C, Ciampaglia R, Narciso V, Tenore GC, et al. Effects of grape pomace polyphenolic extract (Taurisolo((R) in reducing TMAO serum levels in humans: preliminary results from a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Nutrients. 2019;11:139–50.
Shunmoogam N, Naidoo P, Chilton R. Paraoxonase (PON)-1: a brief overview on genetics, structure, polymorphisms and clinical relevance. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2018;14:137–43.
Barrea L, Muscogiuri G, Di Somma C, Annunziata G, Megna M, Falco A, et al. Coffee consumption, metabolic syndrome and clinical severity of psoriasis: good or bad stuff? Arch Toxicol. 2018;92:1831–45.
Renda G, De Caterina R. Coffee and hypertension: a focus on contrasting acute and chronic effects and nutrigenetics. In: Preedy VR, editor. Coffee in health and disease prevention. Academic Press; 2015. p. 395–402. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2012-0-06959-1.
Palatini P, Ceolotto G, Ragazzo F, Dorigatti F, Saladini F, Papparella I, et al. CYP1A2 genotype modifies the association between coffee intake and the risk of hypertension. J Hypertens. 2009;27:1594–601.
Mesas AE, Leon-Munoz LM, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Lopez-Garcia E. The effect of coffee on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease in hypertensive individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:1113–26.
Simopoulos AP. Nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics. Ann Rev Public Health. 2010;31:53–68.
Fenech M, El-Sohemy A, Cahill L, Ferguson LR, French TA, Tai ES, et al. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics: viewpoints on the current status and applications in nutrition research and practice. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2011;4:69–89.
Juma S, Imrhan V, Vijayagopal P, Prasad C. Prescribing personalized nutrition for cardiovascular health: are we ready? J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2014;7:153–60.
Bordoni L, Marchegiani F, Piangerelli M, Napolioni V, Gabbianelli R. Obesity-related genetic polymorphisms and adiposity indices in a young Italian population. IUBMB Life. 2017;69:98–105.
Corella D, Coltell O, Mattingley G, Sorli JV, Ordovas JM. Utilizing nutritional genomics to tailor diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: a guide for upcoming studies and implementations. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2017;17:495–513.
Grimaldi KA, van Ommen B, Ordovas JM, Parnell LD, Mathers JC, Bendik I, et al. Proposed guidelines to evaluate scientific validity and evidence for genotype-based dietary advice. Genes Nutr. 2017;12:35.
Arkadianos I, Valdes AM, Marinos E, Florou A, Gill RD, Grimaldi KA. Improved weight management using genetic information to personalize a calorie controlled diet. Nutr J. 2007;6:29.
Li SX, Ye Z, Whelan K, Truby H. The effect of communicating the genetic risk of cardiometabolic disorders on motivation and actual engagement in preventative lifestyle modification and clinical outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2016;116:924–34.
Dogan MV, Grumbach IM, Michaelson JJ, Philibert RA. Integrated genetic and epigenetic prediction of coronary heart disease in the Framingham Heart Study. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0190549.
Irvin MR, Zhi D, Aslibekyan S, Claas SA, Absher DM, Ordovas JM, et al. Genomics of post-prandial lipidomic phenotypes in the Genetics of Lipid lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99509.
Lai CQ, Smith CE, Parnell LD, Lee YC, Corella D, Hopkins P, et al. Epigenomics and metabolomics reveal the mechanism of the APOA2-saturated fat intake interaction affecting obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;108:188–200.
Perfilyev A, Dahlman I, Gillberg L, Rosqvist F, Iggman D, Volkov P, et al. Impact of polyunsaturated and saturated fat overfeeding on the DNA-methylation pattern in human adipose tissue: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105:991–1000.
Obesity Programs of nutrition, Education, Research and Assessment (OPERA) group members served as collaborators and approved the final version of the manuscript: Colao Annamaria, Savastano Silvia, Barrea Luigi, Muscogiuri Giovanna, Alviggi Carlo, Angrisani Luigi, Annunziata Giuseppe, Beguinot Francesco, Belfiore Annamaria, Belfiore Antonino, Bellastella Giuseppe, Biondi Bernadette, Bonaduce Domenico, Bordoni Laura, Brasacchio Caterina, Capaldo Brunella, Caprio Massimiliano, Cataldi Mauro, Cignarelli Angelo, Cittadini Antonello, Conforti Alessandro, Cuomo Rosario, De Placido Giuseppe, De Siena Marina, Di Carlo Costantino, Di Luigi Luigi, Di Nisio Andrea, Di Renzo Laura, Di Somma Carolina, Docimo Ludovico, Donini Lorenzo Maria, Federici Massimo, Foresta Carlo, Gabbianelli Rosita, Gambineri Alessandra, Gastaldelli Amalia, Giallauria Francesco, Giardiello Cristiano, Gnessi Lucio, Guida Brunella, Laudisio Daniela, Lenzi Andrea, Macchia Paolo Emidio, Manno Emilio, Marzullo Paolo, Migliaccio Silvia, Muratori Fabrizio, Musella Mario, Nardone Gerardo, Nicasto Vincenzo, Piazza Luigi, Pilone Vincenzo, Pivari Francesca, Pivonello Rosario, Pugliese Gabriella, Riccardi Gabriele, Ritieni Alberto, Salzano Ciro, Sanduzzi Alessandro, Sbraccia Paolo, Sesti Giorgio, Soldati Laura, Taglialatela Maurizio, Trimarco Bruno, Tuccinardi Dario.
The 2019 OPERA meeting was organized by Panta Rei Srl and sponsored by Novo Nordisk, Therascience, Bruno Pharma, Merck, Savio Pharma Italia Srl, IBSA Institut Biochimique SA, Bioitalia Srl, Cohesion Pharmaceutical, and Specchiasol Srl. Publication of this article as part of a supplement was sponsored by Panta Rei Srl, Naples, Italy. The meeting sponsors and organizer did not have access to the manuscripts and the authors maintained control of the content.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Barrea, L., Annunziata, G., Bordoni, L. et al. Nutrigenetics—personalized nutrition in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Int J Obes Supp 10, 1–13 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41367-020-0014-4
Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders (2022)
Management of oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases: mechanisms and challenges
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2021)