Various metabolic processes in the body oscillate throughout the natural day, driven by a biological clock. Circadian rhythms are also influenced by time cues from the environment (light exposure) and behaviour (eating and exercise). Recent evidence from diurnal- and circadian-rhythm studies indicates rhythmicity in various circulating metabolites, insulin secretion and -sensitivity and energy expenditure in metabolically healthy adults. These rhythms have been shown to be disturbed in adults with obesity-related metabolic disturbances. Moreover, eating and being (in)active at a time that the body is not prepared for it, as in night-shift work, is related to poor metabolic outcomes. These findings indicate the relevance of 24-h metabolism in obesity-related metabolic alterations and have also led to novel strategies, such as timing of food intake and exercise, to reinforce the circadian rhythm and thereby improving metabolic health. This review aims to deepen the understanding of the influence of the circadian system on metabolic processes and obesity-related metabolic disturbances and to discuss novel time-based strategies that may be helpful in combating metabolic disease.
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Andriessen, C., Schrauwen, P. & Hoeks, J. The importance of 24-h metabolism in obesity-related metabolic disorders: opportunities for timed interventions. Int J Obes 45, 479–490 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-020-00719-9