Relating Clans Ao and Aisin Gioro from northeast China by whole Y-chromosome sequencing

Abstract

The Y-chromosome haplogroup C2b1a3a2-F8951 is the paternal lineage of the Aisin Gioro clan, the most important brother branch of the famous Mongolic-speaking population characteristic haplogroup C2*-Star Cluster (C2b1a3a1-F3796). However, investigations on its internal phylogeny are still limited. In this study, we used whole Y-chromosome sequencing to update its phylogenetic tree. In the revised tree, C2b1a3a2-F8951 and C2*-Star Cluster differentiated 3852 years ago (95% CI = 3295–4497). Approximately 3558 years ago (95% CI = 3013–4144), C2b1a3a2-F8951 was divided into two main subclades, C2b1a3a2a-F14753 and C2b1a3a2b-F5483. Currently, samples of C2b1a3a2-F8951 were mainly from the House of Aisin Gioro clan, the Ao family from Daur and some individuals mainly from northeast China. Although other haplogroups are also found in the Ao family, including C2b1a2-M48, C2b1a3a1-F3796, C2a1b-F845, and N1c-M178, the haplogroup C2b1a3a2-F8951 is still the most distinct genetic component. For haplogroup C2b1a3a2-F8951, the time of the most recent common ancestor of the House of Aisin Gioro clan and the Ao family were both very late, just a few hundred years ago. Some family-specific Y-SNPs of the House of Aisin Gioro and the Ao family were also discovered. This revision evidently improved the resolving power of Y-chromosome phylogeny in northeast Asia, deepening our understanding of the origin of these two families, even the Mongolic-speaking population.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. 1.

    Kayser M. Forensic use of Y-chromosome DNA: a general overview. Hum Genet. 2017;136:621–5.

  2. 2.

    Shi CM, Li C, Ma L, Chi L, Zhao J, Yuan W, et al. Inferring Chinese surnames with Y-STR profiles. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2018;33:66–71.

  3. 3.

    Toscanini U, Gaviria A, Pardo-Seco J, Gomez-Carballa A, Moscoso F, Vela M, et al. The geographic mosaic of Ecuadorian Y-chromosome ancestry. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2018;33:59–65.

  4. 4.

    Claerhout S, Vandenbosch M, Nivelle K, Gruyters L, Peeters A, Larmuseau M, et al. Determining Y-STR mutation rates in deep-routing genealogies: identification of haplogroup differences. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2018;34:1–10.

  5. 5.

    Kayser M, Vermeulen M, Knoblauch H, Schuster H, Krawczak M, Roewer L. Relating two deep-rooted pedigrees from Central Germany by high-resolution Y-STR haplotyping. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2007;1:125–8.

  6. 6.

    Wei W, Ayub Q, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C. A comparison of Y-chromosomal lineage dating using either resequencing or Y-SNP plus Y-STR genotyping. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2013;7:568–72.

  7. 7.

    Zhivotovsky LA, Underhill PA, Cinnioglu C, Kayser M, Morar B, Kivisild T, et al. The effective mutation rate at Y chromosome short tandem repeats, with application to human population-divergence time. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;74:50–61.

  8. 8.

    Larmuseau MH, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, van Oven M, Decorte R. Towards a consensus Y-chromosomal phylogeny and Y-SNP set in forensics in the next-generation sequencing era. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2015;15:39–42.

  9. 9.

    Wei LH, Huang YZ, Yan S, Wen SQ, Wang LX, Du PX, et al. Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroup C3b-F1756, an important paternal lineage in Altaic-speaking populations. J Hum Genet. 2017;62:915–8.

  10. 10.

    Huang YZ, Wei LH, Yan S, Wen SQ, Wang CC, Yang YJ, et al. Whole sequence analysis indicates a recent southern origin of Mongolian Y-chromosome C2c1a1a1-M407. Mol Genet Genom. 2018;293:657–63.

  11. 11.

    Helgason A, Einarsson AW, Guethmundsdottir VB, Sigurethsson A, Gunnarsdottir ED, Jagadeesan A, et al. The Y-chromosome point mutation rate in humans. Nat Genet. 2015;47:453–7.

  12. 12.

    Karmin M, Saag L, Vicente M, Wilson SM, Jarve M, Talas UG, et al. A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture. Genome Res. 2015;25:459–66.

  13. 13.

    Han Y, Li L, Liu X, Chen W, Yang S, Wei L, et al. Genetic analysis of 17 Y-STR loci in Han and Korean populations from Jilin Province, Northeast China. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2016;22:8–10.

  14. 14.

    Chen WQ, Feng Z, Jin W, Zhang YJ, Wang Q, Li P, et al. Genetic analysis of 17 Y-STR loci from 1026 individuals of Han populations in Jilin Province, Northeast China. Int J Leg Med. 2018;132:1309–11.

  15. 15.

    He J, Guo F. Population genetics of 17 Y-STR loci in Chinese Manchu population from Liaoning Province, Northeast China. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2013;7:e84–5.

  16. 16.

    Guo F, Zhang L, Jiang X. Population genetics of 17 Y-STR loci in Xibe ethnic minority from Liaoning Province, Northeast China. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2015;16:86–7.

  17. 17.

    Wei LH, Yan S, Yu G, Huang YZ, Yao DL, Li SL, et al. Genetic trail for the early migrations of Aisin Gioro, the imperial house of the Qing dynasty. J Hum Genet. 2017;62:407–11.

  18. 18.

    Kong QP, Yao YG, Liu M, Shen SP, Chen C, Zhu CL, et al. Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms of five ethnic populations from northern China. Hum Genet. 2003;113:391–405.

  19. 19.

    Chen S. A study on the origin of Daur. Ethno-Natl Stud. 1959;8:43–50.

  20. 20.

    Narangoa L, Cribb R. Historical Atlas of Northeast Asia, 1590–2010: Korea, Manchuria, Mongolia, Eastern Siberia. New York: Columbia University Press;2014.

  21. 21.

    Dmytryshyn, B, Crownhart-Vaughan, EAP, Vaughan, T. Russia’s conquest of Siberia, 1558–1700: a documentary record, vol. 1. Portland: The Press of the Oregon Historical Society;1985.

  22. 22.

    Aola AL. The western expedition and defense of Solon. Beijing, China: Minzu University of China Press;2017.

  23. 23.

    Duo WZ. Hala and Mokun of Daur in Qiqihar. Heilongjiang History. 2014;1:367–78.

  24. 24.

    Wang LX, Lu Y, Zhang C, Wei LH, Yan S, Huang YZ, et al. Reconstruction of Y-chromosome phylogeny reveals two neolithic expansions of Tibeto-Burman populations. Mol Genet Genom. 2018;293:1–8.

  25. 25.

    Li H, Handsaker B, Wysoker A, Fennell T, Ruan J, Homer N, et al. The sequence alignment/Map format and SAMtools. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:2078–9.

  26. 26.

    Li H, Durbin R. Fast and accurate short read alignment with Burrows–Wheeler transform. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:1754–60.

  27. 27.

    Wang Y, Song F, Zhu J, Zhang S, Yang Y, Chen T. GSA: genome sequence. Genom Proteom Bioinform. 2017;15:14–8.

  28. 28.

    Li H, Durbin R. Fast and accurate long-read alignment with Burrows–Wheeler transform. Bioinformatics . 2010;26:589–95.

  29. 29.

    Bouckaert R, Heled J, Kuhnert D, Vaughan T, Wu CH, Xie D, et al. BEAST 2: a software platform for Bayesian evolutionary analysis. PLoS Comput Biol. 2014;10:e1003537.

  30. 30.

    Wei LH, Yan S, Lu Y, Wen SQ, Huang YZ, Wang LX, et al. Whole-sequence analysis indicates that the Y chromosome C2*-Star Cluster traces back to ordinary Mongols, rather than Genghis Khan. Eur J Hum Genet. 2018;26:230–7.

  31. 31.

    Zerjal T, Xue Y, Bertorelle G, Wells RS, Bao W, Zhu S, et al. The genetic legacy of the Mongols. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72:717–21.

  32. 32.

    Zhong H, Shi H, Qi XB, Xiao CJ, Jin L, Ma RZ, et al. Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia. J Hum Genet. 2010;55:428–35.

  33. 33.

    Rootsi S, Zhivotovsky LA, Baldovic M, Kayser M, Kutuev IA, Khusainova R, et al. A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe. Eur J Hum Genet. 2007;15:204–11.

  34. 34.

    Wells RS, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, Underhill PA, Evseeva I, Blue-Smith J, et al. The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001;98:10244–9.

  35. 35.

    McEvoy B, Bradley DG. Y-chromosomes and the extent of patrilineal ancestry in Irish surnames. Hum Genet. 2006;119:212–9.

  36. 36.

    Martinez-Cadenas C, Blanco-Verea A, Hernando B, Busby GB, Brion M, Carracedo A, et al. The relationship between surname frequency and Y chromosome variation in Spain. Eur J Hum Genet. 2016;24:120–8.

  37. 37.

    Sole-Morata N, Bertranpetit J, Comas D, Calafell F. Y-chromosome diversity in Catalan surname samples: insights into surname origin and frequency. Eur J Hum Genet. 2015;23:1549–57.

  38. 38.

    King TE, Jobling MA. Founders, drift, and infidelity: the relationship between Y chromosome diversity and patrilineal surnames. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:1093–102.

  39. 39.

    Erdentai, Oyondalai, Asaraltu. Some Interpretation of the vocabulary of “Mongolian Secret History”. Hohhot: Inner Mongolia People Publishing House;1980.

  40. 40.

    Guo DC. Supplement, correction and study of “Wang Hui”. Changchun: Jilin Education Audiovisual Press;1991.

Download references

Acknowledgements

We especially thank all our sample donors and all of the people who helped with sample collection, including Fu-Rong Su, A-li, Bai-Ling Jin, Xin Jin, Yue-Ling, and Zhong-Mei Ao of the Hulunbuir Daur Ethnic Culture Research Association. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC Nos. 81671874 and 31671297) and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) (2016YFC0900300).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Mei-Sen Shi or Hui Li.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, C., Wei, L., Wang, L. et al. Relating Clans Ao and Aisin Gioro from northeast China by whole Y-chromosome sequencing. J Hum Genet 64, 775–780 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s10038-019-0622-4

Download citation