The Y-chromosome haplogroup C2b1a3a2-F8951 is the paternal lineage of the Aisin Gioro clan, the most important brother branch of the famous Mongolic-speaking population characteristic haplogroup C2*-Star Cluster (C2b1a3a1-F3796). However, investigations on its internal phylogeny are still limited. In this study, we used whole Y-chromosome sequencing to update its phylogenetic tree. In the revised tree, C2b1a3a2-F8951 and C2*-Star Cluster differentiated 3852 years ago (95% CI = 3295–4497). Approximately 3558 years ago (95% CI = 3013–4144), C2b1a3a2-F8951 was divided into two main subclades, C2b1a3a2a-F14753 and C2b1a3a2b-F5483. Currently, samples of C2b1a3a2-F8951 were mainly from the House of Aisin Gioro clan, the Ao family from Daur and some individuals mainly from northeast China. Although other haplogroups are also found in the Ao family, including C2b1a2-M48, C2b1a3a1-F3796, C2a1b-F845, and N1c-M178, the haplogroup C2b1a3a2-F8951 is still the most distinct genetic component. For haplogroup C2b1a3a2-F8951, the time of the most recent common ancestor of the House of Aisin Gioro clan and the Ao family were both very late, just a few hundred years ago. Some family-specific Y-SNPs of the House of Aisin Gioro and the Ao family were also discovered. This revision evidently improved the resolving power of Y-chromosome phylogeny in northeast Asia, deepening our understanding of the origin of these two families, even the Mongolic-speaking population.
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We especially thank all our sample donors and all of the people who helped with sample collection, including Fu-Rong Su, A-li, Bai-Ling Jin, Xin Jin, Yue-Ling, and Zhong-Mei Ao of the Hulunbuir Daur Ethnic Culture Research Association. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC Nos. 81671874 and 31671297) and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) (2016YFC0900300).
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Wang, C., Wei, L., Wang, L. et al. Relating Clans Ao and Aisin Gioro from northeast China by whole Y-chromosome sequencing. J Hum Genet 64, 775–780 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s10038-019-0622-4