Brief Communication | Published:

Molecular genealogy of Tusi Lu’s family reveals their paternal relationship with Jochi, Genghis Khan’s eldest son

Abstract

Genghis Khan’s lineage has attracted both academic and general interest because of its mystery and large influence. However, the truth behind the mystery is complicated and continues to confound the scientific study. In this study, we surveyed the molecular genealogy of Northwestern China’s Lu clan who claim to be the descendants of the sixth son of Genghis Khan, Toghan. We also investigated living members of the Huo and Tuo clans, who, according to oral tradition, were close male relatives of Lu clan. Using network analysis, we found that the Y-chromosomal haplotypes of Lu clan mainly belong to haplogroup C2b1a1b1-F1756, widely prevalent in Altaic-speaking populations, and are closely related to the Tore clan from Kazakhstan, who claim to be the descendants of the first son of Genghis Khan, Jochi. The most recent common ancestor of the special haplotype cluster that includes the Lu clan and Tore clan lived about 1000 years ago (YA), while the Huo and Tuo clans do not share any Y lineages with the Lu clan. In addition to the reported lineages, such as C3*-Star Cluster, R1b-M343, and Q, our results indicate that haplogroup C2b1a1b1-F1756 might be another candidate of the true Y lineage of Genghis Khan.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    Calafell F, Larmuseau MHD. The Y chromosome as the most popular marker in genetic genealogy benefits interdisciplinary research. Hum Genet. 2017;136:559–73.

  2. 2.

    Foster EA, Jobling MA, Taylor PG, Donnelly P, de Knijff P, Mieremet R, et al. Jefferson fathered slave’s last child. Nature. 1998;396:27–28.

  3. 3.

    Lucotte G, Thomasset T, Hrechdakian P. Haplogroup of the Y Chromosome of Napoléon the First. J Mol Biol Res. 2011;1:1–12.

  4. 4.

    Larmuseau MH, Delorme P, Germain P, Vanderheyden N, Gilissen A, Van Geystelen A, et al. Genetic genealogy reveals true Y haplogroup of House of Bourbon contradicting recent identification of the presumed remains of two French Kings. Eur J Hum Genet. 2014;22:681–7.

  5. 5.

    Coble MD, Loreille OM, Wadhams MJ, Edson SM, Maynard K, Meyer CE, et al. Mystery solved: the identification of the two missing Romanov children using DNA analysis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4838.

  6. 6.

    Zerjal T, Xue Y, Bertorelle G, Wells RS, Bao W, Zhu S, et al. The genetic legacy of the Mongols. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72:717–21.

  7. 7.

    Yan S, Tachibana H, Wei LH, Yu G, Wen SQ, Wang CC. Y chromosome of Aisin Gioro, the imperial house of the Qing dynasty. J Hum Genet. 2015;60:295–8.

  8. 8.

    Wang C, Yan S, Hou Z, Fu W, Xiong M, Han S, et al. Present Y chromosomes reveal the ancestry of Emperor CAO Cao of 1800 years ago. J Hum Genet. 2012;57:216–8.

  9. 9.

    Xue Y, Zerjal T, Bao W, Zhu S, Lim SK, Shu Q, et al. Recent spread of a Y-chromosomal lineage in northern China and Mongolia. Am J Hum Genet. 2005;77:1112–6.

  10. 10.

    Wei LH, Yan S, Yu G, Huang YZ, Yao DL, Li SL, et al. Genetic trail for the early migrations of Aisin Gioro, the imperial house of the Qing dynasty. J Hum Genet. 2017;62:407–11.

  11. 11.

    Abilev S, Malyarchuk B, Derenko M, Wozniak M, Grzybowski T, Zakharov I. The Y-chromosome C3* star-cluster attributed to Genghis Khan’s descendants is present at high frequency in the Kerey clan from Kazakhstan. Hum Biol. 2012;84:79–89.

  12. 12.

    Wei LH, Yan S, Lu Y, Wen SQ, Huang YZ, Wang LX, et al. Whole-sequence analysis indicates that the Y chromosome C2*-Star Cluster traces back to ordinary Mongols, rather than Genghis Khan. Eur J Hum Genet. 2018;26:230–7.

  13. 13.

    Zhang X. The research on Mongolian tombs of Mongol Empire and Yuan Period. Jilin, China: Master thesis, Jilin University; 2006.

  14. 14.

    Lkhagvasuren G, Shin H, Lee SE, Tumen D, Kim JH, Kim KY, et al. Molecular genealogy of a Mongol Queen’s family and her possible kinship with Genghis Khan. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0161622.

  15. 15.

    Cui Y, Song L, Wei D, Pang Y, Wang N, Ning C, et al. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015;370:20130378.

  16. 16.

    Batbayar K, Sabitov ZM. The genetic origin of the Turko-Mongols and review of the genetic legacy of the Mongols. Part 1: the Y-chromosomal lineages of Chinggis Khan. Russ J Genet Geneal. 2012;4:1–8.

  17. 17.

    Wang CC, Wang LX, Shrestha R, Zhang M, Huang XY, Hu K, et al. Genetic structure of Qiangic populations residing in the western Sichuan corridor. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103772.

  18. 18.

    Wen SQ, Xu D, Yao HB, Li H. Present Y chromosomes refute the Roma/Gypsy origin 9 of the Xuejiawan people in Northwest China. In: XU Dan, Li Hui, (eds.) Languages and genes 10 in Northwestern China and adjacent regions. Singapore: Springer; 2017. p. 107–120.

  19. 19.

    Wei LH, Huang YZ, Yan S, Wen SQ, Wang LX, Du PX, et al. Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroup C3b-F1756, an important paternal lineage in Altaic-speaking populations. J Hum Genet. 2017;62:915–8.

  20. 20.

    Yan S, Wang CC, Li H, Li SL, Jin L. Genographic consortium. An updated tree of Y-chromosome Haplogroup O and revised phylogenetic positions of mutations P164 and PK4. Eur J Hum Genet. 2011;19:1013–5.

  21. 21.

    Wang CC, Li H. Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes. Invest Genet. 2013;4:11.

  22. 22.

    Hu K, Yan S, Liu K, Ning C, Wei LH, Li SL. et al. The dichotomy structure of Y chromosome Haplogroup N. 2015. https://arxiv.org/abs/1504.06463.

  23. 23.

    Turuspekov Y, Sabitov Zh, Daulet B, Sadykov M, Khalidullin O. The Kazakhstan DNA project hits first hundred Y-profiles for ethnic Kazakhs. Russ J Genet Geneal. 2011;2:69–84.

  24. 24.

    Wang CC, Li H. Evaluating the Y chromosomal STR dating in deep-rooting pedigrees. Invest Genet. 2015;6:8.

  25. 25.

    Balaresque P, Poulet N, Cussat-Blanc S, Gerard P, Quintana-Murci L, Heyer E, et al. Y-chromosome descent clusters and male differential reproductive success: young lineage expansions dominate Asian pastoral nomadic populations. Eur J Hum Genet. 2015;23:1413–22.

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are grateful for the trust of the sample donors. This work was supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2018M640332), Scientific and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality (18490750300), National Natural Science Foundation of China (91731303, 81671874, 31760309, 31771325, 91631105, and 31801040), Nanqiang Outstanding Young Talents Program of Xiamen University (X2123302), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (ZK1144), MOE Research Program Foundation of Humanities and Social Sciences (18YJAZH116), Scientific Research Project for Colleges of Gansu province (2017B-34), Major Project of Gansu Institute of Political Science and Law (2017XZD10), and 111 Project (B13016).

Author information

Correspondence to Hui Li.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Table S1

Y chromosome SNP and STR data of Lu clan, Huo clan, and Tuo clan. The Y chromosomal SNP information and 17 Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389I/II, DYS390,DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, Y-GATA H4, and DYS385a/b) are provided.

Table S2

Y-STR haplotypes of all C2b1a1b1-F1756 included in this study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark
Fig. 1
Fig. 2