Radiation Grafting of Polyethylene onto Conductive Carbon Black and Application as a Novel Gas Sensor

Abstract

Radiation grafting of polyethylene (PE) onto carbon black was carried out by γ-ray irradiation of PE-adsorbed carbon black. The percentage of PE grafting and decomposition temperature of PE grafted onto the surface were determined by thermogravimetric analysis. At low irradiation temperature, the percentage of grafting was very small in spite of higher irradiation dose. On the contrary, at high temperatures near or above the melting point of PE, the grafting of PE onto the carbon black surface proceeded and the percentage of grafting exceeded 90% when the irradiation dose reached to 200 kGy. The results indicate that the adsorbed PE was completely grafted onto the carbon black surface. The decomposition temperature of the grafted PE on the surface was higher than both free (unadsorbed) PE and adsorbed PE on the carbon black surface, indicating that there is a covalent bond between the carbon black and PE molecule. Using the PE-grafted carbon black and PE, conductive PE/PE-grafted carbon black composite was prepared. Electric resistance suddenly increased in cyclohexane vapor over 104 times, and returned to initial resistance when transferred to air, indicating that the composite can be used as a novel gas sensor.

References

  1. 1

    N. Tsubokawa, Prog. Polym. Sci., 17, 417 (1992).

  2. 2

    N. Tsubokawa, Shikizai Kyokaishi, 71, 656 (1998).

  3. 3

    N. Tsubokawa, “Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Chemically Modified Surfaces”, J. P. Biltz and C. B. Little, Ed., The Royal Society, London, 1999, p 36.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    M. Okazaki, K. Maruyama, M. Tsuchida, and N. Tsubokawa, Polym. J., 31, 672 (1999).

  5. 5

    J. Chen and N. Tsubokawa, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 77, 2437 (2000).

  6. 6

    J. Chen and N. Tsubokawa, Polym. J., 9, 729 (2000).

  7. 7

    J. Chen and N. Tsubokawa, Polym. Adv. Technol., 11, 101 (2000).

  8. 8

    J. Chen and N. Tsubokawa, J. Macromol. Sci., Pure Appl. Chem., A38, 383 (2001).

  9. 9

    M. Levy and M. Szwarz, J. Chem. Phys., 22, 1621 (1954).

  10. 10

    M. Levy, S. Newman, and M. Szwarz, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 77, 4225 (1995).

  11. 11

    N. Tsubokawa and K. Yanadori, Kobunshi Ronbunshu, 49, 865 (1992).

  12. 12

    S. Hayashi, S. Handa, Y. Oshibe, T. Yamamoto, and N. Tsubokawa, Polym. J., 27, 623 (1995).

  13. 13

    S. Yoshikawa, S. Machida, and N. Tsubokawa, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. Ed., 36, 3165 (1998).

  14. 14

    A. Bhattacharya, Prog. Polym. Sci., 25, 371 (2000).

  15. 15

    S. Ohnishi, S. Sugimoto, and I. Nitta, J. Polym. Sci., A, 1, 605 (1963).

  16. 16

    J. Li, M. Zhai, M. Yi, H. Gao, and H. Ha, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 55, 173 (1999).

  17. 17

    B. J. Ringrose and E. Kronfli, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 55, 451 (1999).

  18. 18

    E. Akinay and T. Tincer, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 79, 816 (2001).

  19. 19

    G. Burillo, M. A. Oseguera, C. Vazquez, and L. F. D. Castillo, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 50, 511 (1997).

  20. 20

    V. G. Barkhudaryan, Polymer, 41, 575 (2000).

  21. 21

    V. G. Barkhudaryan, Polymer, 41, 2515 (2000).

  22. 22

    J. Carlos, M. Suarez, and E. B. Mano, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 72, 217 (2001).

  23. 23

    V. Premnath, A. Bellare, E. W. Merrill, M. Jasty, and W. H. Harris, Polymer, 40, 2215 (1999).

  24. 24

    P. O’Neill, C. Birkinshaw, J. J. Leahy, and R. Barklie, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 63, 31 (1999).

  25. 25

    H. M. Abou Zeid, Z. I. Ali, T. M. Abdel Maksoud, and R. M. Khafagy, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 75, 179 (2000).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chen, J., Maekawa, Y., Yoshida, M. et al. Radiation Grafting of Polyethylene onto Conductive Carbon Black and Application as a Novel Gas Sensor. Polym J 34, 30–35 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1295/polymj.34.30

Download citation

Keywords

  • Carbon Black
  • Radiation Grafting
  • γ-Ray
  • Polyethylene
  • Conductive Composite
  • Gas Sensor

Further reading

Search