Ethanol in alcoholic beverages is a known carcinogen, but its association with aggressive prostate cancer (APC) is uncertain. Recent studies have shown a modest increase in risk of APC associated with heavy alcohol intake while association for beverage types remain inconsistent.
Using a case–control design and self-administered questionnaire, we examined the association between APC (high grade and/or advanced stage) and frequency and quantity of alcohol intake 2 years prior to enrolment. Furthermore, we delineated the relationships for beverage-specific intakes of beer, red wine, white wine and spirits.
The study included 1282 APC cases and 951 controls. Beer intake frequency of ⩾5 days per week was associated with increased risk compared with no beer intake (odds ratio=1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.12–2.48) whereas wine was protective at all frequencies of consumption compared with those with no wine intake. For every 10 g per week ethanol intake from beer increase, the odds of advanced PC rose by 3% (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.02–1.05). No such increased risk was observed for red or white wine while a marginal dose–response relationship was found for spirits (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.99–1.07).
Heavy beer and possibly spirits consumption is associated with increased risk while no dose–response relationship was found for red or white wine. Wine drinkers at all frequencies have a decreased risk of APC compared with those who did not drink wine.
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This study was funded in part by NHMRC grant #623204. IDD is supported by an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Practitioner Fellowship (APP1102604).
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Supplementary Information accompanies the paper on the Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases website
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Papa, N., MacInnis, R., Jayasekara, H. et al. Total and beverage-specific alcohol intake and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer: a case–control study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 20, 305–310 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/pcan.2017.12