The degradation of eukaryotic mRNAs plays important roles in the modulation of gene expression, quality control of mRNA biogenesis and antiviral defenses. In the past five years, many of the enzymes involved in this process have been identified and mechanisms that modulate their activities have begun to be identified. In this review, we describe the enzymes of mRNA degradation and their properties. We highlight that there are a variety of enzymes with different specificities, suggesting that individual nucleases act on distinct subpopulations of transcripts within the cell. In several cases, translation factors that bind mRNA inhibit these nucleases. In addition, recent work has begun to identify distinct mRNP complexes that recruit the nucleases to transcripts through different mRNA-interacting proteins. These properties and complexes suggest multiple mechanisms by which mRNA degradation could be regulated.
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The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Parker, R., Song, H. The enzymes and control of eukaryotic mRNA turnover. Nat Struct Mol Biol 11, 121–127 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1038/nsmb724
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