DNA cytosine methylation is a key epigenetic mark that is required for normal mammalian development. Iterative oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by the TET family of DNA dioxygenases generates three oxidized nucleotides: 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Recent advances in genomic mapping techniques have suggested that these oxidized cytosines not only function in the process of active reversal of 5mC but also may possess unique regulatory functions in the mammalian genome.
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We thank L.M. Tuesta for critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by US National Institutes of Health grants GM68804 and U01DK089565 (to Y.Z.). H.W. was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical Research and is currently supported by the US National Human Genome Research Institute (K99HG007982). Y.Z. is supported as an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Wu, H., Zhang, Y. Charting oxidized methylcytosines at base resolution. Nat Struct Mol Biol 22, 656–661 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.3071
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