Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has long been recognized to be a risk factor for dementia. This association has, however, only recently gained widespread attention through the increased awareness of 'chronic traumatic encephalopathy' (CTE) in athletes exposed to repetitive head injury. Originally termed 'dementia pugilistica' and linked to a career in boxing, descriptions of the neuropathological features of CTE include brain atrophy, cavum septum pellucidum, and amyloid-β, tau and TDP-43 pathologies, many of which might contribute to clinical syndromes of cognitive impairment. Similar chronic pathologies are also commonly found years after just a single moderate to severe TBI. However, little consensus currently exists on specific features of these post-TBI syndromes that might permit their confident clinical and/or pathological diagnosis. Moreover, the mechanisms contributing to neurodegeneration following TBI largely remain unknown. Here, we review the current literature and controversies in the study of chronic neuropathological changes after TBI.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents the strongest environmental risk factor for dementia
Current evidence indicates a possible 'dose' and frequency-dependent association between TBI and risk of neurodegenerative disease
The human pathology of survival from TBI is best described as a 'polypathology', featuring amyloid-β, tau and TDP-43 pathologies, together with white matter degradation, neuronal loss and neuroinflammation
The chronic pathologies following single and repetitive injuries show similarities, although comparative studies are lacking at present
TBI may offer an opportunity for better understanding of the evolution of pathologies in a wider range of neurodegenerative diseases
There is an urgent need to extend existing tissue banks dedicated to TBI and establish further networked archives to provide broad international research access
Access optionsAccess options
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $18.67 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Molgaard, C. A. et al. Epidemiology of head trauma and neurocognitive impairment in a multi-ethnic population. Neuroepidemiology 9, 233–242 (1990).
Mortimer, J. A., French, L. R., Hutton, J. T. & Schuman, L. M. Head injury as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 35, 264–267 (1985).
Mortimer, J. A. et al. Head trauma as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case–control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group. Int. J. Epidemiol. 20 (Suppl. 2), S28–S35 (1991).
Graves, A. B. et al. The association between head trauma and Alzheimer's disease. Am. J. Epidemiol. 131, 491–501 (1990).
O'Meara, E. S. et al. Head injury and risk of Alzheimer's disease by apolipoprotein E genotype. Am. J. Epidemiol. 146, 373–384 (1997).
Salib, E. & Hillier, V. Head injury and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: a case control study. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 12, 363–368 (1997).
Guo, Z. et al. Head injury and the risk of AD in the MIRAGE study. Neurology 54, 1316–1323 (2000).
Schofield, P. W. et al. Alzheimer's disease after remote head injury: an incidence study. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 62, 119–124 (1997).
Plassman, B. L. et al. Documented head injury in early adulthood and risk of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Neurology 55, 1158–1166 (2000).
Fleminger, S., Oliver, D. L., Lovestone, S., Rabe-Hesketh, S. & Giora, A. Head injury as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: the evidence 10 years on; a partial replication. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 74, 857–862 (2003).
Lye, T. C. & Shores, E. A. Traumatic brain injury as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: a review. Neuropsychol. Rev. 10, 115–129 (2000).
Faul, M., Xu, L., Wald, M. M. & Coronado, V. G. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths, 2002–2006. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [online], (2010).
Thurman, D. J. et al. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: a report to Congress. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [online]. (1999).
Martland, H. Punch drunk. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 91, 1103–1107 (1928).
Millspaugh, J. Dementia pugilistica. U. S. Nav. Med. Bull. 35, 297–303 (1937).
Critchley, M. Medical aspects of boxing, particularly from a neurological standpoint. Br. Med. J. 1, 357–362 (1957).
Payne, E. E. Brains of boxers. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg.) 11, 173–188 (1968).
Corsellis, J. A., Bruton, C. J. & Freeman-Browne, D. The aftermath of boxing. Psychol. Med. 3, 270–303 (1973).
Omalu, B. I. et al. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in a national football league player: part II. Neurosurgery 59, 1086–1092 (2006).
Omalu, B. I. et al. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in a National Football League player. Neurosurgery 57, 128–134 (2005).
McKee, A. C. et al. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: progressive tauopathy after repetitive head injury. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 68, 709–735 (2009).
McKee, A. C. et al. TDP-43 proteinopathy and motor neuron disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 69, 918–929 (2010).
Omalu, B. I., Fitzsimmons, R. P., Hammers, J. & Bailes, J. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in a professional American wrestler. J. Forensic Nurs. 6, 130–136 (2010).
Omalu, B. I., Hamilton, R. L., Kamboh, M. I., DeKosky, S. T. & Bailes, J. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a National Football League Player: case report and emerging medicolegal practice questions. J. Forensic Nurs. 6, 40–46 (2010).
Omalu, B. et al. Emerging histomorphologic phenotypes of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in American athletes. Neurosurgery 69, 173–183 (2011).
Goldstein, L. E. et al. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model. Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134ra60 (2012).
McKee, A. C. et al. The spectrum of disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Brain 136, 43–64 (2013).
Omalu, B. et al. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in an Iraqi war veteran with posttraumatic stress disorder who committed suicide. Neurosurg. Focus 31, E3 (2011).
Hof, P. R., Knabe, R., Bovier, P. & Bouras, C. Neuropathological observations in a case of autism presenting with self-injury behavior. Acta Neuropathol. 82, 321–326 (1991).
Roberts, G. W., Whitwell, H. L., Acland, P. R. & Bruton, C. J. Dementia in a punch-drunk wife. Lancet 335, 918–919 (1990).
Williams, D. J. & Tannenberg, A. E. Dementia pugilistica in an alcoholic achondroplastic dwarf. Pathology 28, 102–104 (1996).
Mawdsley, C. & Ferguson, F. R. Neurological disease in boxers. Lancet 2, 799–801 (1963).
Spillane, J. D. Five boxers. Br. Med. J. 2, 1205–1210 (1962).
Roberts, G. Brain Damage in Boxers: A Study of the Prevalence of Traumatic Encephalopathy Among Ex-Professional Boxers (Pitman, London, 1969).
Jordan, B. D. et al. CT of 338 active professional boxers. Radiology 185, 509–512 (1992).
Jordan, B. D., Matser, E. J., Zimmerman, R. D. & Zazula, T. Sparring and cognitive function in professional boxers. Phys. Sportsmed. 24, 87–98 (1996).
Loosemore, M., Knowles, C. H. & Whyte, G. P. Amateur boxing and risk of chronic traumatic brain injury: systematic review of observational studies. BMJ 335, 809 (2007).
Guskiewicz, K. M. et al. Association between recurrent concussion and late-life cognitive impairment in retired professional football players. Neurosurgery 57, 719–726 (2005).
Lehman, E. J., Hein, M. J., Baron, S. L. & Gersic, C. M. Neurodegenerative causes of death among retired National Football League players. Neurology 79, 1970–1974 (2012).
Chandra, V., Philipose, V., Bell, P. A., Lazaroff, A. & Schoenberg, B. S. Case–control study of late onset “probable Alzheimer's disease”. Neurology 37, 1295–1300 (1987).
Amaducci, L. A. et al. Risk factors for clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease: a case–control study of an Italian population. Neurology 36, 922–931 (1986).
Broe, G. A. et al. A case–control study of Alzheimer's disease in Australia. Neurology 40, 1698–1707 (1990).
Ferini-Strambi, L., Smirne, S., Garancini, P., Pinto, P. & Franceschi, M. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of Alzheimer's disease with presenile onset: a case control study. Neuroepidemiology 9, 39–49 (1990).
van Duijn, C. M. et al. Head trauma and the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Am. J. Epidemiol. 135, 775–782 (1992).
Katzman, R. et al. Development of dementing illnesses in an 80-year-old volunteer cohort. Ann. Neurol. 25, 317–324 (1989).
Launer, L. J. et al. Rates and risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer's disease: results from EURODEM pooled analyses. EURODEM Incidence Research Group and Work Groups. European Studies of Dementia. Neurology 52, 78–84 (1999).
Williams, D. B., Annegers, J. F., Kokmen, E., O'Brien, P. C. & Kurland, L. T. Brain injury and neurologic sequelae: a cohort study of dementia, parkinsonism, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurology 41, 1554–1557 (1991).
Mehta, K. M. et al. Head trauma and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: The Rotterdam Study. Neurology 53, 1959–1962 (1999).
Sullivan, P., Petitti, D. & Barbaccia, J. Head trauma and age of onset of dementia of the Alzheimer type. JAMA 257, 2289–2290 (1987).
Gedye, A., Beattie, B. L., Tuokko, H., Horton, A. & Korsarek, E. Severe head injury hastens age of onset of Alzheimer's disease. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 37, 970–973 (1989).
Nemetz, P. N. et al. Traumatic brain injury and time to onset of Alzheimer's disease: a population-based study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 149, 32–40 (1999).
Brandenburg, W. & Hallervorden, J. Dementia pugilistica with anatomical findings [German]. Virchows Arch. 325, 680–709 (1954).
Neubuerger, K. T., Sinton, D. W. & Denst, J. Cerebral atrophy associated with boxing. AMA Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 81, 403–408 (1959).
Constantinidis, J. & Tissot, R. Generalized Alzheimer's neurofibrillary lesions without senile plaques. (Presentation of one anatomo-clinical case) [French]. Schweiz. Arch. Neurol. Neurochir. Psychiatr. 100, 117–130 (1967).
Ferguson, F. R. & Mawdsley, C. Chronic Encephalopathy in Boxers: 8th International Congress of Neurology, Vienna (Wiener Medizinischen Akademie, Vienna, 1965).
Grahmann, H. & Ule, G. Diagnosis of chronic cerebral symptoms in boxers (dementia pugilistica & traumatic encephalopathy of boxers) [German]. Psychiatr. Neurol. 134, 261–283 (1957).
Roberts, G. W., Allsop, D. & Bruton, C. The occult aftermath of boxing. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 53, 373–378 (1990).
Jordan, B. D. et al. Apolipoprotein E ε4 and fatal cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with dementia pugilistica. Ann. Neurol. 38, 698–699 (1995).
Schmidt, M. L., Zhukareva, V., Newell, K. L., Lee, V. M. & Trojanowski, J. Q. Tau isoform profile and phosphorylation state in dementia pugilistica recapitulate Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 101, 518–524 (2001).
Saing, T. et al. Frontal cortex neuropathology in dementia pugilistica. J. Neurotrauma 29, 1054–1070 (2012).
Nowak, L. A., Smith, G. G. & Reyes, P. F. Dementia in a retired world boxing champion: case report and literature review. Clin. Neuropathol. 28, 275–280 (2009).
Areza-Fegyveres, R. et al. Dementia pugilistica with clinical features of Alzheimer's disease. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr. 65, 830–833 (2007).
Drachman, D. & Newall, K. Case 12–1999—a 67-year-old man with three years of dementia. N. Engl. J. Med. 340, 1269–1277 (1999).
Farbota, K. D. et al. Longitudinal volumetric changes following traumatic brain injury: a tensor-based morphometry study. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 18, 1006–1018 (2012).
Ross, D. E. et al. Progressive brain atrophy in patients with chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study. Brain Inj. 26, 1500–1509 (2012).
Ross, D. E. Review of longitudinal studies of MRI brain volumetry in patients with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 25, 1271–1278 (2011).
Tomaiuolo, F. et al. Gross morphology and morphometric sequelae in the hippocampus, fornix, and corpus callosum of patients with severe non-missile traumatic brain injury without macroscopically detectable lesions: a T1 weighted MRI study. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75, 1314–1322 (2004).
Warner, M. A. et al. Assessing spatial relationships between axonal integrity, regional brain volumes, and neuropsychological outcomes after traumatic axonal injury. J. Neurotrauma 27, 2121–2130 (2010).
Allsop, D., Haga, S., Bruton, C., Ishii, T. & Roberts, G. W. Neurofibrillary tangles in some cases of dementia pugilistica share antigens with amyloid β-protein of Alzheimer's disease. Am. J. Pathol. 136, 255–260 (1990).
Geddes, J. F., Vowles, G. H., Nicoll, J. A. & Revesz, T. Neuronal cytoskeletal changes are an early consequence of repetitive head injury. Acta Neuropathol. 98, 171–178 (1999).
Hof, P. R. et al. Differential distribution of neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral cortex of dementia pugilistica and Alzheimer's disease cases. Acta Neuropathol. 85, 23–30 (1992).
Casson, I. R. et al. Brain damage in modern boxers. JAMA 251, 2663–2667 (1984).
Bogdanoff, B. & Natter, H. M. Incidence of cavum septum pellucidum in adults: a sign of boxer's encephalopathy. Neurology 39, 991–992 (1989).
Bodensteiner, J. B. & Schaefer, G. B. Dementia pugilistica and cavum septi pellucidi: born to box? Sports Med. 24, 361–365 (1997).
Macpherson, P. & Teasdale, E. CT demonstration of a 5th ventricle—a finding to KO boxers? Neuroradiology 30, 506–510 (1988).
Schwidde, J. T. Incidence of cavum septi pellucidi and cavum Vergae in 1,032 human brains. AMA Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 67, 625–632 (1952).
Haglund, Y. & Bergstrand, G. Does Swedish amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage? 2. A retrospective study with CT and MRI. Acta Neurol. Scand. 82, 297–302 (1990).
Adams, J. H., Graham, D. I., Murray, L. S. & Scott, G. Diffuse axonal injury due to nonmissile head injury in humans: an analysis of 45 cases. Ann. Neurol. 12, 557–563 (1982).
Adams, J. H. et al. Diffuse axonal injury in head injury: definition, diagnosis and grading. Histopathology 15, 49–59 (1989).
Johnson, V. E., Stewart, W. & Smith, D. H. Axonal pathology in traumatic brain injury. Exp. Neurol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2012.01.013.
Johnson, V. et al. Inflammation and white matter degeneration persist for years after a single traumatic brain injury. Brain (in press).
Geddes, J. F., Vowles, G. H., Robinson, S. F. & Sutcliffe, J. C. Neurofibrillary tangles, but not Alzheimer-type pathology, in a young boxer. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 22, 12–16 (1996).
Baugh, C. M. et al. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: neurodegeneration following repetitive concussive and subconcussive brain trauma. Brain Imaging Behav. 6, 244–254 (2012).
Braak, H. & Braak, E. Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes. Acta Neuropathol. 82, 239–259 (1991).
Corsellis, J. A. & Brierley, J. B. Observations on the pathology of insidious dementia following head injury. J. Ment. Sci. 105, 714–720 (1959).
Rudelli, R., Strom, J. O., Welch, P. T. & Ambler, M. W. Posttraumatic premature Alzheimer's disease. Neuropathologic findings and pathogenetic considerations. Arch. Neurol. 39, 570–575 (1982).
Smith, C., Graham, D. I., Murray, L. S. & Nicoll, J. A. Tau immunohistochemistry in acute brain injury. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 29, 496–502 (2003).
Johnson, V. E., Stewart, W. & Smith, D. H. Widespread tau and amyloid-beta pathology many years after a single traumatic brain injury in humans. Brain Pathol. 22, 142–149 (2012).
Dale, G. E., Leigh, P. N., Luthert, P., Anderton, B. H. & Roberts, G. W. Neurofibrillary tangles in dementia pugilistica are ubiquitinated. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 54, 116–118 (1991).
Johnson, V. E., Stewart, W. & Smith, D. H. Traumatic brain injury and amyloid-β pathology: a link to Alzheimer's disease? Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 11, 361–370 (2010).
Roberts, G. W., Gentleman, S. M., Lynch, A. & Graham, D. I. βA4 amyloid protein deposition in brain after head trauma. Lancet 338, 1422–1423 (1991).
Roberts, G. W. et al. β amyloid protein deposition in the brain after severe head injury: implications for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 419–425 (1994).
Ikonomovic, M. D. et al. Alzheimer's pathology in human temporal cortex surgically excised after severe brain injury. Exp. Neurol. 190, 192–203 (2004).
Huber, A., Gabbert, K., Kelemen, J. & Cervos-Navarro, J. Density of amyloid plaques in brains after head trauma. J. Neurotrauma 10 (Suppl. 1), S180 (1993).
Adams, J. H. et al. Diffuse axonal injury in head injury: definition, diagnosis and grading. Histopathology 15, 49–59 (1989).
Gentleman, S. M., Nash, M. J., Sweeting, C. J., Graham, D. I. & Roberts, G. W. β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) as a marker for axonal injury after head injury. Neurosci. Lett. 160, 139–144 (1993).
Sherriff, F. E., Bridges, L. R. & Sivaloganathan, S. Early detection of axonal injury after human head trauma using immunocytochemistry for β-amyloid precursor protein. Acta Neuropathol. 87, 55–62 (1994).
Smith, D. H. et al. Accumulation of amyloid beta and tau and the formation of neurofilament inclusions following diffuse brain injury in the pig. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 58, 982–992 (1999).
Smith, D. H., Chen, X. H., Iwata, A. & Graham, D. I. Amyloid β accumulation in axons after traumatic brain injury in humans. J. Neurosurg. 98, 1072–1077 (2003).
Chen, X. H., Johnson, V. E., Uryu, K., Trojanowski, J. Q. & Smith, D. H. A lack of amyloid β plaques despite persistent accumulation of amyloid β in axons of long-term survivors of traumatic brain injury. Brain Pathol. 19, 214–223 (2009).
Gultekin, S. H. & Smith, T. W. Diffuse axonal injury in craniocerebral trauma. A comparative histologic and immunohistochemical study. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 118, 168–171 (1994).
Neumann, M. et al. Ubiquitinated TDP-43 in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Science 314, 130–133 (2006).
Chen-Plotkin, A. S., Lee, V. M. & Trojanowski, J. Q. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 in neurodegenerative disease. Nat. Rev. Neurol. 6, 211–220 (2010).
Geser, F., Martinez-Lage, M., Kwong, L. K., Lee, V. M. & Trojanowski, J. Q. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia and beyond: the TDP-43 diseases. J. Neurol. 256, 1205–1214 (2009).
Neumann, M., Kwong, L. K., Sampathu, D. M., Trojanowski, J. Q. & Lee, V. M. TDP-43 proteinopathy in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: protein misfolding diseases without amyloidosis. Arch. Neurol. 64, 1388–1394 (2007).
King, A. et al. Abnormal TDP-43 expression is identified in the neocortex in cases of dementia pugilistica, but is mainly confined to the limbic system when identified in high and moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease. Neuropathology 30, 408–419 (2010).
Johnson, V. E., Stewart, W., Trojanowski, J. Q. & Smith, D. H. Acute and chronically increased immunoreactivity to phosphorylation-independent but not pathological TDP-43 after a single traumatic brain injury in humans. Acta Neuropathol. 122, 715–726 (2011).
Mann, D. M., Yates, P. O. & Hawkes, J. The pathology of the human locus ceruleus. Clin. Neuropathol. 2, 1–7 (1983).
Shaw, K. et al. TUNEL-positive staining in white and grey matter after fatal head injury in man. Clin. Neuropathol. 20, 106–112 (2001).
Maxwell, W. L. et al. There is differential loss of pyramidal cells from the human hippocampus with survival after blunt head injury. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 62, 272–279 (2003).
Maxwell, W. L., MacKinnon, M. A., Smith, D. H., McIntosh, T. K. & Graham, D. I. Thalamic nuclei after human blunt head injury. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 65, 478–488 (2006).
Williams, S. et al. In situ DNA fragmentation occurs in white matter up to 12 months after head injury in man. Acta Neuropathol. 102, 581–590 (2001).
Royal College of Physicians of London. Committee on Boxing. Report on the Medical Aspects of Boxing (Royal College of Physicians of London, London, 1969).
Reichard, R. R., Smith, C. & Graham, D. I. The significance of β-APP immunoreactivity in forensic practice. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 31, 304–313 (2005).
Strich, S. J. Diffuse degeneration of the cerebral white matter in severe dementia following head injury. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 19, 163–185 (1956).
Perry, V. H., Nicoll, J. A. & Holmes, C. Microglia in neurodegenerative disease. Nat. Rev. Neurol. 6, 193–201 (2010).
Brettschneider, J. et al. Microglial activation correlates with disease progression and upper motor neuron clinical symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PLoS ONE 7, e39216 (2012).
Brettschneider, J. et al. Microglial activation and TDP-43 pathology correlate with executive dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol. 123, 395–407 (2012).
Loane, D. J. & Byrnes, K. R. Role of microglia in neurotrauma. Neurotherapeutics 7, 366–377 (2010).
Gentleman, S. M. et al. Long-term intracerebral inflammatory response after traumatic brain injury. Forensic Sci. Int. 146, 97–104 (2004).
Ramlackhansingh, A. F. et al. Inflammation after trauma: microglial activation and traumatic brain injury. Ann Neurol. 70, 374–383 (2011).
Adams, C. W. & Bruton, C. J. The cerebral vasculature in dementia pugilistica. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 52, 600–604 (1989).
Blaylock, R. L. & Maroon, J. Immunoexcitotoxicity as a central mechanism in chronic traumatic encephalopathy-A unifying hypothesis. Surg. Neurol. Int. 2, 107 (2011).
Walker, A., Caveness, W. & Critchley, M. (Eds). The Late Effects of Head Injury (Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1969).
Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy—Boston University [online], (2012).
Braak, H. & Braak, E. Frequency of stages of Alzheimer-related lesions in different age categories. Neurobiol. Aging 18, 351–357 (1997).
Braak, H., Thal, D. R., Ghebremedhin, E. & Del Tredici, K. Stages of the pathologic process in Alzheimer disease: age categories from 1 to 100 years. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 70, 960–969 (2011).
Tokuda, T., Ikeda, S., Yanagisawa, N., Ihara, Y. & Glenner, G. G. Re-examination of ex-boxers' brains using immunohistochemistry with antibodies to amyloid β-protein and tau protein. Acta Neuropathol. 82, 280–285 (1991).
This work was supported by NIH grants NS038104 (D. H. Smith and W. Stewart), NS056202 and AG038911 (D. H. Smith). In addition, we would like to thank Dr Nadia Dahmane and Dr Amaya Wolf for assistance with translation of articles in French and German, respectively.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics (2019)
Predicting long-term cognitive and neuropathological consequences of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: Review and theoretical framework
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2019)
Correlates of Brain Injuries in Women Subjected to Intimate Partner Violence: Identifying the Dangers and Raising Awareness
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma (2019)
Laboratory Investigation (2019)