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HDL cholesterol is not HDL—don't judge the book by its cover

The concept that raising HDL-cholesterol level will uniformly translate into cardiovascular risk reduction has been challenged by genetic epidemiology studies and large-scale, randomized clinical trials. Studies suggest that we should go beyond HDL cholesterol, and consider emerging biomarkers of HDL concentration, composition, and functionality as surrogates for cardiovascular risk reduction.

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Correspondence to Jean-Pierre Després.

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J.-P. Després has received honoraria as a speaker or consulting fees from Abbott, AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer Canada, Sanofi, Theratechnologies, and Torrent Pharmaceuticals. B. J. Arsenault declares no competing interests.

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Arsenault, B., Després, JP. HDL cholesterol is not HDL—don't judge the book by its cover. Nat Rev Cardiol 9, 557–558 (2012).

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