Malumbres, M. & Barbacid, M. To cycle or not to cycle: a critical decision in cancer. Nature Rev. Cancer 1, 222–231 (2001).
Massague, J. G1 cell-cycle control and cancer. Nature 432, 298–306 (2004).
Kastan, M. B. & Bartek, J. Cell-cycle checkpoints and cancer. Nature 432, 316–323 (2004).
Kops, G. J., Weaver, B. A. & Cleveland, D. W. On the road to cancer: aneuploidy and the mitotic checkpoint. Nature Rev. Cancer 5, 773–785 (2005).
Malumbres, M. & Barbacid, M. Mammalian cyclin-dependent kinases. Trends Biochem. Sci. 30, 630–641 (2005).
Bartek, J., Lukas, C. & Lukas, J. Checking on DNA damage in S phase. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 5, 792–804 (2004).
Perez de Castro, I., de Carcer, G. & Malumbres, M. A census of mitotic cancer genes: new insights into tumor cell biology and cancer therapy. Carcinogenesis 28, 899–912 (2007).
Musacchio, A. & Salmon, E. D. The spindle-assembly checkpoint in space and time. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 8, 379–393 (2007).
Harbour, J. W., Luo, R. X., Dei Santi, A., Postigo, A. A. & Dean, D. C. Cdk phosphorylation triggers sequential intramolecular interactions that progressively block Rb functions as cells move through G1. Cell 98, 859–869 (1999).
Lundberg, A. S. & Weinberg, R. A. Functional inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein requires sequential modification by at least two distinct cyclin-cdk complexes. Mol. Cell. Biol. 18, 753–761 (1998).
van den Heuvel, S. & Harlow, E. Distinct roles for cyclin-dependent kinases in cell cycle control. Science 262, 2050–2054 (1993).
Pagano, M. et al. Regulation of the cell cycle by the cdk2 protein kinase in cultured human fibroblasts. J. Cell Biol. 121, 101–111 (1993).
Hochegger, H., Takeda, S. & Hunt, T. Cyclin-dependent kinases and cell-cycle transitions: does one fit all? Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 9, 910–916 (2008).
Rane, S. G. et al. Loss of Cdk4 expression causes insulin-deficient diabetes and Cdk4 activation results in beta-islet cell hyperplasia. Nature Genet. 22, 44–52 (1999).
Tsutsui, T. et al. Targeted disruption of CDK4 delays cell cycle entry with enhanced p27Kip1 activity. Mol. Cell. Biol. 19, 7011–7019 (1999).
Malumbres, M. et al. Mammalian cells cycle without the D-type cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6. Cell 118, 493–504 (2004).
Ortega, S. et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 is essential for meiosis but not for mitotic cell division in mice. Nature Genet. 35, 25–31 (2003).
Berthet, C., Aleem, E., Coppola, V., Tessarollo, L. & Kaldis, P. Cdk2 knockout mice are viable. Curr. Biol. 13, 1775–1785 (2003).
References 17 and 18 provide genetic evidence that CDK2 is not essential for DNA synthesis, or for any other essential step within the mitotic cell cycle.
Santamaria, D. et al. Cdk1 is sufficient to drive the mammalian cell cycle. Nature 448, 811–815 (2007).
Genetic ablation of all interphase CDKs — CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 — does not result in cell cycle defects in most cell types. In addition, this manuscript describes that CDK1 is essential for cell division.
Barriere, C. et al. Mice thrive without Cdk4 and Cdk2. Mol. Oncol. 1, 72–83 (2007).
This manuscript demonstrates that the two main interphase CDKs are dispensable for adult homeostasis as well as for proliferation of adult hepatocytes during liver regeneration.
Berthet, C. et al. Combined loss of Cdk2 and Cdk4 results in embryonic lethality and Rb hypophosphorylation. Dev. Cell 10, 563–573 (2006).
Satyanarayana, A. et al. Genetic substitution of Cdk1 by Cdk2 leads to embryonic lethality and loss of meiotic function of Cdk2. Development 135, 3389–3400 (2008).
Ciemerych, M. A. & Sicinski, P. Cell cycle in mouse development. Oncogene 24, 2877–2898 (2005).
Kozar, K. et al. Mouse development and cell proliferation in the absence of D-cyclins. Cell 118, 477–491 (2004).
References 14–16 and 24 provide genetic evidence that the D-type cyclins as well as their cognate CDKs, CDK4 and CDK6, are not essential for entry into the cell cycle.
Geng, Y. et al. Cyclin E ablation in the mouse. Cell 114, 431–443 (2003).
Parisi, T. et al. Cyclins E1 and E2 are required for endoreplication in placental trophoblast giant cells. EMBO J. 22, 4794–4803 (2003).
Geng, Y. et al. Kinase-independent function of cyclin, E. Mol. Cell 25, 127–139 (2007).
Geng, Y. et al. Rescue of cyclin D1 deficiency by knockin cyclin, E. Cell 97, 767–777 (1999).
References 25–28 provide genetic evidence on the essential functions of E-type cyclins, their CDK2-independent roles and their functional overlap with cyclin D1.
Murphy, M. et al. Delayed early embryonic lethality following disruption of the murine cyclin A2 gene. Nature Genet. 15, 83–86 (1997).
Brandeis, M. et al. Cyclin B2-null mice develop normally and are fertile whereas cyclin B1-null mice die in utero. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 95, 4344–4349 (1998).
Kippin, T. E., Martens, D. J. & van der Kooy, D. p21 loss compromises the relative quiescence of forebrain stem cell proliferation leading to exhaustion of their proliferation capacity. Genes Dev. 19, 756–767 (2005).
Choudhury, A. R. et al. Cdkn1a deletion improves stem cell function and lifespan of mice with dysfunctional telomeres without accelerating cancer formation. Nature Genet. 39, 99–105 (2007).
Fasano, C. A. et al. shRNA knockdown of Bmi-1 reveals a critical role for p21-Rb pathway in NSC self-renewal during development. Cell Stem Cell 1, 87–99 (2007).
Pechnick, R. N., Zonis, S., Wawrowsky, K., Pourmorady, J. & Chesnokova, V. p21Cip1 restricts neuronal proliferation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1358–1363 (2008).
Walkley, C. R., Fero, M. L., Chien, W. M., Purton, L. E. & McArthur, G. A. Negative cell-cycle regulators cooperatively control self-renewal and differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells. Nature Cell Biol. 7, 172–178 (2005).
Cheng, T. et al. Hematopoietic stem cell quiescence maintained by p21cip1/waf1. Science 287, 1804–1808 (2000).
Besson, A. et al. Discovery of an oncogenic activity in p27Kip1 that causes stem cell expansion and a multiple tumor phenotype. Genes Dev. 21, 1731–1746 (2007).
Yuan, Y., Shen, H., Franklin, D. S., Scadden, D. T. & Cheng, T. In vivo self-renewing divisions of haematopoietic stem cells are increased in the absence of the early G1-phase inhibitor, p18INK4C. Nature Cell Biol. 6, 436–442 (2004).
Yu, H., Yuan, Y., Shen, H. & Cheng, T. Hematopoietic stem cell exhaustion impacted by p18INK4C and p21Cip1/Waf1 in opposite manners. Blood 107, 1200–1206 (2006).
Janzen, V. et al. Stem-cell ageing modified by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a. Nature 443, 421–426 (2006).
Krishnamurthy, J. et al. p16INK4a induces an age-dependent decline in islet regenerative potential. Nature 443, 453–457 (2006).
Pei, X. H., Bai, F., Smith, M. D. & Xiong, Y. p18Ink4c collaborates with Men1 to constrain lung stem cell expansion and suppress non-small-cell lung cancers. Cancer Res. 67, 3162–3170 (2007).
Molofsky, A. V. et al. Increasing p16INK4a expression decreases forebrain progenitors and neurogenesis during ageing. Nature 443, 448–452 (2006).
Rosu-Myles, M., Taylor, B. J. & Wolff, L. Loss of the tumor suppressor p15Ink4b enhances myeloid progenitor formation from common myeloid progenitors. Exp. Hematol. 35, 394–406 (2007).
Carlson, M. E., Hsu, M. & Conboy, I. M. Imbalance between pSmad3 and Notch induces CDK inhibitors in old muscle stem cells. Nature 454, 528–532 (2008).
Horsley, V., Aliprantis, A. O., Polak, L., Glimcher, L. H. & Fuchs, E. NFATc1 balances quiescence and proliferation of skin stem cells. Cell 132, 299–310 (2008).
Jablonska, B. et al. Cdk2 is critical for proliferation and self-renewal of neural progenitor cells in the adult subventricular zone. J. Cell Biol. 179, 1231–1245 (2007).
Ortega, S., Malumbres, M. & Barbacid, M. Cyclin D-dependent kinases, INK4 inhibitors and cancer. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1602, 73–87 (2002).
Sotillo, R. et al. Wide spectrum of tumors in knock-in mice carrying a Cdk4 protein insensitive to INK4 inhibitors. EMBO J. 20, 6637–6647 (2001).
Rane, S. G., Cosenza, S. C., Mettus, R. V. & Reddy, E. P. Germ line transmission of the Cdk4R24C mutation facilitates tumorigenesis and escape from cellular senescence. Mol. Cell. Biol. 22, 644–656 (2002).
Sotillo, R. et al. Invasive melanoma in Cdk4-targeted mice. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 98, 13312–13317 (2001).
Martin, A. et al. Cdk2 is dispensable for cell cycle inhibition and tumor suppression mediated by p27Kip1 and p21Cip1. Cancer Cell 7, 591–598 (2005).
Aleem, E., Kiyokawa, H. & Kaldis, P. Cdc2–cyclin E complexes regulate the G1/S phase transition. Nature Cell Biol. 7, 831–836 (2005).
Tetsu, O. & McCormick, F. Proliferation of cancer cells despite CDK2 inhibition. Cancer Cell 3, 233–245 (2003).
This manuscript illustrates that different human tumour cell lines have selective requirements for CDK activity.
Miliani de Marval, P. L. et al. Lack of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibits c-myc tumorigenic activities in epithelial tissues. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 7538–7547 (2004).
Yu, Q. et al. Requirement for CDK4 kinase function in breast cancer. Cancer Cell 9, 23–32 (2006).
Reddy, H. K. et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 expression is essential for neu-induced breast tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 65, 10174–10178 (2005).
Landis, M. W., Pawlyk, B. S., Li, T., Sicinski, P. & Hinds, P. W. Cyclin D1-dependent kinase activity in murine development and mammary tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell 9, 13–22 (2006).
References 56–58 demonstrate the requirement for the mouse CDK4–cyclin D activity in ERBB2-induced breast tumours suggesting possible therapeutic uses of specific CDK4 inhibitors in ERBB2-positive breast cancer.
Yu, Q., Geng, Y. & Sicinski, P. Specific protection against breast cancers by cyclin D1 ablation. Nature 411, 1017–1021 (2001).
This pioneer study reports that cyclin D1 (and hence CDK4 or CDK6 activity) is essential for Erbb2- or Hras-induced tumours but not Myc- or Wnt1-induced tumours.
Malumbres, M. & Barbacid, M. Is Cyclin D1–CDK4 kinase a bona fide cancer target? Cancer Cell 9, 2–4 (2006).
Aguilera, A. & Gomez-Gonzalez, B. Genome instability: a mechanistic view of its causes and consequences. Nature Rev. Genet. 9, 204–217 (2008).
Cimprich, K. A. & Cortez, D. ATR: an essential regulator of genome integrity. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 9, 616–627 (2008).
Lavin, M. F. Ataxia-telangiectasia: from a rare disorder to a paradigm for cell signalling and cancer. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 9, 759–769 (2008).
Caldecott, K. W. Single-strand break repair and genetic disease. Nature Rev. Genet. 9, 619–631 (2008).
Antoni, L., Sodha, N., Collins, I. & Garrett, M. D. CHK2 kinase: cancer susceptibility and cancer therapy — two sides of the same coin? Nature Rev. Cancer 7, 925–936 (2007).
Bartkova, J. et al. DNA damage response as a candidate anti-cancer barrier in early human tumorigenesis. Nature 434, 864–870 (2005).
Bartkova, J. et al. Oncogene-induced senescence is part of the tumorigenesis barrier imposed by DNA damage checkpoints. Nature 444, 633–637 (2006).
Gorgoulis, V. G. et al. Activation of the DNA damage checkpoint and genomic instability in human precancerous lesions. Nature 434, 907–913 (2005).
Di Micco, R. et al. Oncogene-induced senescence is a DNA damage response triggered by DNA hyper-replication. Nature 444, 638–642 (2006).
This series of articles (references 66–69) demonstrate the tumour suppressor role of the DNA damage response and the effects of its alteration in human tumours.
Halazonetis, T. D., Gorgoulis, V. G. & Bartek, J. An oncogene-induced DNA damage model for cancer development. Science 319, 1352–1355 (2008).
Yata, K. & Esashi, F. Dual role of CDKs in DNA repair: To be, or not to be. DNA Repair (Amst) 8, 6–18 (2009).
Huertas, P., Cortes-Ledesma, F., Sartori, A. A., Aguilera, A. & Jackson, S. P. CDK targets Sae2 to control DNA-end resection and homologous recombination. Nature 455, 689–692 (2008).
Esashi, F. et al. CDK-dependent phosphorylation of BRCA2 as a regulatory mechanism for recombinational repair. Nature 434, 598–604 (2005).
References 72 and 73 report an unexpected function for yeast and mammalian CDKs in DNA repair.
Potapova, T. A. et al. The reversibility of mitotic exit in vertebrate cells. Nature 440, 954–958 (2006).
Queralt, E. & Uhlmann, F. Cdk-counteracting phosphatases unlock mitotic exit. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 20, 661–668 (2008).
Peters, J. M. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 7, 644–656 (2006).
Sullivan, M. & Morgan, D. O. Finishing mitosis, one step at a time. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 8, 894–903 (2007).
Nakayama, K. I. & Nakayama, K. Ubiquitin ligases: cell-cycle control and cancer. Nature Rev. Cancer 6, 369–381 (2006).
Hayes, M. J. et al. Early mitotic degradation of Nek2A depends on Cdc20-independent interaction with the APC/C. Nature Cell Biol. 8, 607–614 (2006).
Wolthuis, R. et al. Cdc20 and Cks direct the spindle checkpoint-independent destruction of cyclin A. Mol. Cell 30, 290–302 (2008).
Carter, S. L., Eklund, A. C., Kohane, I. S., Harris, L. N. & Szallasi, Z. A signature of chromosomal instability inferred from gene expression profiles predicts clinical outcome in multiple human cancers. Nature Genet. 38, 1043–1048 (2006).
Fukasawa, K. Oncogenes and tumour suppressors take on centrosomes. Nature Rev. Cancer 7, 911–924 (2007).
Duensing, A. et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 is dispensable for normal centrosome duplication but required for oncogene-induced centrosome overduplication. Oncogene 25, 2943–2949 (2006).
Hanashiro, K., Kanai, M., Geng, Y., Sicinski, P. & Fukasawa, K. Roles of cyclins A and E in induction of centrosome amplification in p53-compromised cells. Oncogene 27, 5288–5302 (2008).
Hochegger, H. et al. An essential role for Cdk1 in S phase control is revealed via chemical genetics in vertebrate cells. J. Cell Biol. 178, 257–268 (2007).
Greenman, C. et al. Patterns of somatic mutation in human cancer genomes. Nature 446, 153–158 (2007).
Hanks, S. et al. Constitutional aneuploidy and cancer predisposition caused by biallelic mutations in BUB1B. Nature Genet. 36, 1159–1161 (2004).
Mantel, C. et al. Checkpoint-apoptosis uncoupling in human and mouse embryonic stem cells: a source of karyotpic instability. Blood 109, 4518–4527 (2007).
Jeganathan, K., Malureanu, L., Baker, D. J., Abraham, S. C. & van Deursen, J. M. Bub1 mediates cell death in response to chromosome missegregation and acts to suppress spontaneous tumorigenesis. J. Cell Biol. 179, 255–267 (2007).
Baker, D. J. et al. BubR1 insufficiency causes early onset of aging-associated phenotypes and infertility in mice. Nature Genet. 36, 744–749 (2004).
Perera, D. et al. Bub1 maintains centromeric cohesion by activation of the spindle checkpoint. Dev. Cell 13, 566–579 (2007).
Dai, W. et al. Slippage of mitotic arrest and enhanced tumor development in mice with BubR1 haploinsufficiency. Cancer Res. 64, 440–445 (2004).
Michel, L. S. et al. MAD2 haplo-insufficiency causes premature anaphase and chromosome instability in mammalian cells. Nature 409, 355–359 (2001).
Sotillo, R. et al. Mad2 overexpression promotes aneuploidy and tumorigenesis in mice. Cancer Cell 11, 9–23 (2007).
References 93–94 show that both decreased and increased levels of the SAC regulator MAD2L1 cause CIN tumours in mice, suggesting the existence of new group of tumour-related genes with features of both oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes.
Weaver, B. A. & Cleveland, D. W. Aneuploidy: instigator and inhibitor of tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 67, 10103–10105 (2007).
Yuen, K. W. & Desai, A. The wages of CIN. J. Cell Biol. 180, 661–663 (2008).
Engelbert, D., Schnerch, D., Baumgarten, A. & Wasch, R. The ubiquitin ligase APCCdh1 is required to maintain genome integrity in primary human cells. Oncogene 27, 907–917 (2008).
Garcia-Higuera, I. et al. Genomic stability and tumour suppression by the APC/C cofactor Cdh1. Nature Cell Biol. 10, 802–811 (2008).
Li, M. et al. The adaptor protein of the anaphase promoting complex Cdh1 is essential in maintaining replicative lifespan and in learning and memory. Nature Cell Biol. 10, 1083–1089 (2008).
References 98 and 99 provide an in vivo demonstration of the relevance of the APC/C activity in maintaining the control of CDK function and cell cycle regulation for preventing GIN and tumour formation.
Keen, N. & Taylor, S. Aurora-kinase inhibitors as anticancer agents. Nature Rev. Cancer 4, 927–936 (2004).
Malumbres, M. & Barbacid, M. Cell cycle kinases in cancer. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 17, 60–65 (2007).
Perez de Castro, I., de Carcer, G., Montoya, G. & Malumbres, M. Emerging cancer therapeutic opportunities by inhibiting mitotic kinases. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 8, 375–383 (2008).
Petronczki, M., Lenart, P. & Peters, J. M. Polo on the rise — from mitotic entry to cytokinesis with Plk1. Dev. Cell 14, 646–659 (2008).
Strebhardt, K. & Ullrich, A. Targeting polo-like kinase 1 for cancer therapy. Nature Rev. Cancer 6, 321–330 (2006).
Taylor, S. & Peters, J. M. Polo and Aurora kinases: lessons derived from chemical biology. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 20, 77–84 (2008).
Malumbres, M., Pevarello, P., Barbacid, M. & Bischoff, J. R. CDK inhibitors in cancer therapy: what is next? Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 29, 16–21 (2008).
Shapiro, G. I. Cyclin-dependent kinase pathways as targets for cancer treatment. J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 1770–1783 (2006).
Larochelle, S. et al. Requirements for Cdk7 in the assembly of Cdk1/cyclin B and activation of Cdk2 revealed by chemical genetics in human cells. Mol. Cell 25, 839–850 (2007).
Li, T., Inoue, A., Lahti, J. M. & Kidd, V. J. Failure to proliferate and mitotic arrest of CDK11p110/p58-null mutant mice at the blastocyst stage of embryonic cell development. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 3188–3197 (2004).
Iorns, E. et al. Identification of CDK10 as an important determinant of resistance to endocrine therapy for breast cancer. Cancer Cell 13, 91–104 (2008).
Chandramouli, A. et al. Haploinsufficiency of the cdc2l gene contributes to skin cancer development in mice. Carcinogenesis 28, 2028–2035 (2007).
Boveri, T. Zur Frage der Entstehung Maligner Tumoren (Gustav Fisher, Jena, Germany, 1914) (in German).
Weaver, B. A., Silk, A. D., Montagna, C., Verdier-Pinard, P. & Cleveland, D. W. Aneuploidy acts both oncogenically and as a tumor suppressor. Cancer Cell 11, 25–36 (2007).
Farmer, H. et al. Targeting the DNA repair defect in BRCA mutant cells as a therapeutic strategy. Nature 434, 917–921 (2005).
An elegant proof of principle of the therapeutic value of inducing synthetic lethal alterations in tumours.
Huang, D., Friesen, H. & Andrews, B. Pho85, a multifunctional cyclin-dependent protein kinase in budding yeast. Mol. Microbiol. 66, 303–314 (2007).
Nebreda, A. R. CDK activation by non-cyclin proteins. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18, 192–198 (2006).
Bloom, J. & Cross, F. R. Multiple levels of cyclin specificity in cell-cycle control. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 8, 149–160 (2007).
Ren, S. & Rollins, B. J. Cyclin C/cdk3 promotes Rb-dependent G0 exit. Cell 117, 239–251 (2004).
Ye, X., Zhu, C. & Harper, J. W. A premature-termination mutation in the Mus. musculus cyclin-dependent kinase 3 gene. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 98, 1682–1686 (2001).
Zhang, J. et al. Nuclear localization of Cdk5 is a key determinant in the postmitotic state of neurons. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 8772–8777 (2008).
Maestre, C., Delgado-Esteban, M., Gomez-Sanchez, J. C., Bolanos, J. P. & Almeida, A. Cdk5 phosphorylates Cdh1 and modulates cyclin B1 stability in excitotoxicity. EMBO J. 27, 2736–2745 (2008).
Fisher, R. P. Secrets of a double agent: CDK7 in cell-cycle control and transcription. J. Cell Sci. 118, 5171–5180 (2005).
Loyer, P., Trembley, J. H., Katona, R., Kidd, V. J. & Lahti, J. M. Role of CDK/cyclin complexes in transcription and RNA splicing. Cell Signal 17, 1033–1051 (2005).
Firestein, R. et al. CDK8 is a colorectal cancer oncogene that regulates β-catenin activity. Nature 455, 547–551 (2008).
Morris, E. J. et al. E2F1 represses beta-catenin transcription and is antagonized by both pRB and CDK8. Nature 455, 552–556 (2008).
References 124 and 125 illustrate the role of CDK8, a CDK not directly implicated in the cell cycle, in human tumour development.
Petretti, C. et al. The PITSLRE/CDK11p58 protein kinase promotes centrosome maturation and bipolar spindle formation. EMBO Rep. 7, 418–424 (2006).
Wilker, E. W. et al. 14-3-3σ controls mitotic translation to facilitate cytokinesis. Nature 446, 329–332 (2007).
Yokoyama, H. et al. Cdk11 is a RanGTP-dependent microtubule stabilization factor that regulates spindle assembly rate. J. Cell Biol. 180, 867–875 (2008).
Hu, D., Valentine, M., Kidd, V. J. & Lahti, J. M. CDK11p58 is required for the maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion. J. Cell Sci. 120, 2424–2434 (2007).
Hampsey, M. & Kinzy, T. G. Synchronicity: policing multiple aspects of gene expression by Ctk1. Genes Dev. 21, 1288–1291 (2007).
Chen, H. H., Wang, Y. C. & Fann, M. J. Identification and characterization of the CDK12/cyclin L1 complex involved in alternative splicing regulation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 26, 2736–2745 (2006).
Chen, H. H., Wong, Y. H., Geneviere, A. M. & Fann, M. J. CDK13/CDC2L5 interacts with L-type cyclins and regulates alternative splicing. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 354, 735–740 (2007).
Martin, J. et al. Genetic rescue of Cdk4 null mice restores pancreatic β-cell proliferation but not homeostatic cell number. Oncogene 22, 5261–5269 (2003).
Mettus, R. V. & Rane, S. G. Characterization of the abnormal pancreatic development, reduced growth and infertility in Cdk4 mutant mice. Oncogene 22, 8413–8421 (2003).
Jirawatnotai, S. et al. Cdk4 is indispensable for postnatal proliferation of the anterior pituitary. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 51100–51106 (2004).
Moons, D. S. et al. Pituitary hypoplasia and lactotroph dysfunction in mice deficient for cyclin-dependent kinase-4. Endocrinology 143, 3001–3008 (2002).
Sotillo, R. et al. Cooperation between Cdk4 and p27kip1 in tumor development: a preclinical model to evaluate cell cycle inhibitors with therapeutic activity. Cancer Res. 65, 3846–3852 (2005).
Hartwell, L. H., Culotti, J. & Reid, B. Genetic control of the cell-division cycle in yeast. I. Detection of mutants. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 66, 352–359 (1970).
Nurse, P. Genetic control of cell size at cell division in yeast. Nature 256, 547–551 (1975).
Evans, T., Rosenthal, E. T., Youngblom, J., Distel, D. & Hunt, T. Cyclin: a protein specified by maternal mRNA in sea urchin eggs that is destroyed at each cleavage division. Cell 33, 389–396 (1983).
Lee, M. G. & Nurse, P. Complementation used to clone a human homologue of the fission yeast cell cycle control gene cdc2. Nature 327, 31–35 (1987).
DeCaprio, J. A. et al. The product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene has properties of a cell cycle regulatory element. Cell 58, 1085–1095 (1989).
Buchkovich, K., Duffy, L. A. & Harlow, E. The retinoblastoma protein is phosphorylated during specific phases of the cell cycle. Cell 58, 1097–1105 (1989).
Chen, P. L., Scully, P., Shew, J. Y., Wang, J. Y. & Lee, W. H. Phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product is modulated during the cell cycle and cellular differentiation. Cell 58, 1193–1198 (1989).
Weinert, T. & Hartwell, L. Control of G2 delay by the rad9 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Cell Sci. Suppl 12, 145–148 (1989).
Xiong, Y., Connolly, T., Futcher, B. & Beach, D. Human D-type cyclin. Cell 65, 691–699 (1991).
Matsushime, H., Roussel, M. F., Ashmun, R. A. & Sherr, C. J. Colony-stimulating factor 1 regulates novel cyclins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cell 65, 701–713 (1991).
Lew, D. J., Dulic, V. & Reed, S. I. Isolation of three novel human cyclins by rescue of G1 cyclin (Cln) function in yeast. Cell 66, 1197–1206 (1991).
Matsushime, H. et al. Identification and properties of an atypical catalytic subunit (p34PSK-J3/cdk4) for mammalian D type G1 cyclins. Cell 71, 323–34 (1992).
Donehower, L. A. et al. Mice deficient for p53 are developmentally normal but susceptible to spontaneous tumours. Nature 356, 215–221 (1992).
Farmer, G. et al. Wild-type p53 activates transcription in vitro. Nature 358, 83–86 (1992).
Hupp, T. R., Meek, D. W., Midgley, C. A. & Lane, D. P. Regulation of the specific DNA binding function of p53. Cell 71, 875–886 (1992).
Lu, X., Park, S. H., Thompson, T. C. & Lane, D. P. Ras-induced hyperplasia occurs with mutation of p53, but activated ras and myc together can induce carcinoma without p53 mutation. Cell 70, 153–161 (1992).
Lane, D. P. Cancer. p53, guardian of the genome. Nature 358, 15–16 (1992).
Kuerbitz, S. J., Plunkett, B. S., Walsh, W. V. & Kastan, M. B. Wild-type p53 is a cell cycle checkpoint determinant following irradiation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 89, 7491–7495 (1992).
Kastan, M. B. et al. A mammalian cell cycle checkpoint pathway utilizing p53 and GADD45 is defective in ataxia-telangiectasia. Cell 71, 587–597 (1992).
Xiong, Y., Zhang, H. & Beach, D. Subunit rearrangement of the cyclin-dependent kinases is associated with cellular transformation. Genes Dev. 7, 1572–1583 (1993).
Serrano, M., Hannon, G. J. & Beach, D. A new regulatory motif in cell-cycle control causing specific inhibition of cyclin D/CDK4. Nature 366, 704–707 (1993).
Xiong, Y. et al. p21 is a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases. Nature 366, 701–704 (1993).
Polyak, K. et al. p27Kip1, a cyclin-Cdk inhibitor, links transforming growth factor-beta and contact inhibition to cell cycle arrest. Genes Dev. 8, 29–22 (1994).
Toyoshima, H. & Hunter, T. p27, a novel inhibitor of G1 cyclin-Cdk protein kinase activity, is related to p21. Cell 78, 67–74 (1994).
Kato, J. Y., Matsuoka, M., Polyak, K., Massague, J. & Sherr, C. J. Cyclic AMP-induced G1 phase arrest mediated by an inhibitor (p27Kip1) of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 activation. Cell 79, 487–96 (1994).
Guan, K. L. et al. Growth suppression by p18, a p16INK4/MTS1- and p14INK4B/MTS2-related CDK6 inhibitor, correlates with wild-type pRb function. Genes Dev. 8, 2939–2952 (1994).
Polyak, K. et al. Cloning of p27Kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and a potential mediator of extracellular antimitogenic signals. Cell 78, 59–66 (1994).
Lee, M. H., Reynisdottir, I. & Massague, J. Cloning of p57KIP2, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with unique domain structure and tissue distribution. Genes Dev. 9, 639–49 (1995).
Matsuoka, S. et al. p57KIP2, a structurally distinct member of the p21CIP1 Cdk inhibitor family, is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. Genes Dev. 9, 650–662 (1995).
Li, Y. & Benezra, R. Identification of a human mitotic checkpoint gene: hsMAD2. Science 274, 246–248 (1996).
Loda, M. et al. Increased proteasome-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in aggressive colorectal carcinomas. Nature Med. 3, 231–234 (1997).
Catzavelos, C. et al. Decreased levels of the cell-cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 protein: prognostic implications in primary breast cancer. Nature Med. 3, 227–230 (1997).
Serrano, M., Lin, A. W., McCurrach, M. E., Beach, D. & Lowe, S. W. Oncogenic ras provokes premature cell senescence associated with accumulation of p53 and p16INK4a. Cell 88, 593–602 (1997).
Cahill, D. P. et al. Mutations of mitotic checkpoint genes in human cancers. Nature 392, 300–303 (1998).
Hanks, S. et al. Constitutional aneuploidy and cancer predisposition caused by biallelic mutations in BUB1B. Nature Genet. 36, 1159–1161 (2004).
Michaloglou, C. et al. BRAFE600-associated senescence-like cell cycle arrest of human naevi. Nature 436, 720–724 (2005).
Collado, M. et al. Tumour biology: senescence in premalignant tumours. Nature 436, 642 (2005).
Braig, M. et al. Oncogene-induced senescence as an initial barrier in lymphoma development. Nature 436, 660–665 (2005).
Chen, Z. et al. Crucial role of p53-dependent cellular senescence in suppression of Pten-deficient tumorigenesis. Nature 436, 725–730 (2005).