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I.R.M. is supported by a Discovery Grant from Canadian NSERC. S.K.M. is supported by US Department of Energy Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) award 20150127ER. I.J.R. is funded by STFC grant ST/L000563/1 and NERC grant NE/L007495/1. KRM is supported by an NSERC Postdoctoral Fellowship. CARISMA is operated by the University of Alberta, funded by the Canadian Space Agency. We acknowledge the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto University, Japan, for the geomagnetic indices. This work was supported by RBSP-ECT funding provided by JHU/APL Contract No. 967399 under NASA's Prime Contract No. NAS5-01072. The Sub-Auroral Magnetometer Network (SAMNET) is operated by the Space Plasma Environment and Radio Science (SPEARS) group, Department of Physics, Lancaster University, UK. We thank the institutes who maintain the IMAGE Magnetometer Array. We thank the CXD team at LANL, the SOPA PI (Michael Henderson) and ESP PI (Gregory Cunningham) for providing the energetic electron data.

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  1. Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 Canada

    • I. R. Mann
    • , L. G. Ozeke
    • , K. R. Murphy
    • , A. Kale
    • , D. K. Milling
    •  & S. Dimitrakoudis
  2. Space Science and Applications (ISR 1), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA

    • S. K. Morley
  3. NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Code 674, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA

    • K. R. Murphy
  4. The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California 90009, USA

    • S. G. Claudepierre
    •  & D. L. Turner
  5. Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA

    • D. N. Baker
  6. Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK

    • I. J. Rae
  7. Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824-3525, USA

    • A. J. Boyd
    •  & H. E. Spence
  8. The New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, USA

    • A. J. Boyd
  9. Space Weather Prediction Center, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, 80305, USA

    • H. J. Singer
  10. National Observatory of Athens, Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, 15236 Penteli, Greece

    • S. Dimitrakoudis
    •  & I. A. Daglis
  11. Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece

    • I. A. Daglis
  12. Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB, UK

    • F. Honary


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Correspondence to I. R. Mann.

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