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Generalized non-reciprocity in an optomechanical circuit via synthetic magnetism and reservoir engineering

Abstract

Synthetic magnetism has been used to control charge neutral excitations for applications ranging from classical beam steering to quantum simulation. In optomechanics, radiation-pressure-induced parametric coupling between optical (photon) and mechanical (phonon) excitations may be used to break time-reversal symmetry, providing the prerequisite for synthetic magnetism. Here we design and fabricate a silicon optomechanical circuit with both optical and mechanical connectivity between two optomechanical cavities. Driving the two cavities with phase-correlated laser light results in a synthetic magnetic flux, which, in combination with dissipative coupling to the mechanical bath, leads to non-reciprocal transport of photons with 35 dB of isolation. Additionally, optical pumping with blue-detuned light manifests as a particle non-conserving interaction between photons and phonons, resulting in directional optical amplification of 12 dB in the isolator through-direction. These results suggest the possibility of using optomechanical circuits to create a more general class of non-reciprocal optical devices, and further, to enable new topological phases for both light and sound on a microchip.

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Figure 1: Synthetic magnetic field in an optomechanical cavity system.
Figure 2: Silicon optomechanical crystal circuit.
Figure 3: Measurement of optical non-reciprocity.
Figure 4: Synthetic magnetic field with a single-mechanical cavity.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank M. Roukes for the use of his atomic force microscope in the nano-oxidation tuning of the cavities. This work was supported by the AFOSR-MURI Quantum Photonic Matter, the ARO-MURI Quantum Opto-Mechanics with Atoms and Nanostructured Diamond (grant N00014-15-1-2761), the University of Chicago Quantum Engineering Program (A.A.C., A.M.), the ERC Starting Grant OPTOMECH (F.M.), the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, an NSF Physics Frontiers Center (grant PHY-1125565) with support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech.

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K.F., F.M., A.M., A.A.C. and O.P. came up with the concept. K.F., O.P. and J.L. planned the experiment. K.F., J.L. and M.H.M. performed the device design and fabrication. K.F. and J.L. performed the measurements. K.F., J.L., A.M., A.A.C. and O.P. analysed the data. All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Oskar Painter.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Fang, K., Luo, J., Metelmann, A. et al. Generalized non-reciprocity in an optomechanical circuit via synthetic magnetism and reservoir engineering. Nature Phys 13, 465–471 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphys4009

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