Long-range pd exchange interaction in a ferromagnet–semiconductor hybrid structure

Abstract

Hybrid structures synthesized from different materials have attracted considerable attention because they may allow not only combination of the functionalities of the individual constituents but also mutual control of their properties. To obtain such a control an interaction between the components needs to be established. For coupling the magnetic properties, an exchange interaction has to be implemented which typically depends on wavefunction overlap and is therefore short-ranged, so that it may be compromised across the hybrid interface. Here we study a hybrid structure consisting of a ferromagnetic Co layer and a semiconducting CdTe quantum well, separated by a thin (Cd, Mg)Te barrier. In contrast to the expected pd exchange that decreases exponentially with the wavefunction overlap of quantum well holes and magnetic atoms, we find a long-ranged, robust coupling that does not vary with barrier width up to more than 30 nm. We suggest that the resulting spin polarization of acceptor-bound holes is induced by an effective pd exchange that is mediated by elliptically polarized phonons.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Ferromagnet-induced proximity effect.
Figure 2: Time-resolved spin dynamics.
Figure 3: Ferromagnet-induced spin polarization of the QW heavy holes bound to acceptors.
Figure 4: Effective pd exchange interaction between FM and QW heavy holes.
Figure 5: Illustration of circularly polarized phonon mode in the FM–QW hybrid structure.

References

  1. 1

    Kittel, C. Introduction to Solid State Physics 3rd edn (Wiley, 1967).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Furdyna, J. K. Diluted magnetic semiconductors. J. Appl. Phys. 64, R29–R64 (1988).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Dietl, T. A ten-year perspective on dilute magnetic semiconductors and oxides. Nature Mater. 9, 965–974 (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Nagaev, E. L. Photoinduced magnetism and conduction electrons in magnetic semiconductors. Phys. Status Solidi B 145, 11–64 (1988).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Korenev, V. L. Electric control of magnetic moment in a ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrid system. JETP Lett. 78, 564–568 (2003).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Myers, R. C., Gossard, A. C. & Awschalom, D. D. Tunable spin polarization in III–V quantum wells with a ferromagnetic barrier. Phys. Rev. B 69, 161305(R) (2004).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Zaitsev, S. V. et al. Ferromagnetic effect of a Mn delta layer in the GaAs barrier on the spin polarization of carriers in an InGaAs/GaAs quantum well. JETP Lett. 90, 658–662 (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Pankov, M. A. et al. Ferromagnetic transition in GaAs/Mn/GaAs/InxGa1−xAs/GaAs structures with a two-dimensional hole gas. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 109, 293–301 (2009).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Zakharchenya, B. P. & Korenev, V. L. Integrating magnetism into semiconductor electronics. Phys. Usp. 48, 603–608 (2005).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Korenev, V. L. et al. Dynamic spin polarization by orientation-dependent separation in a ferromagnet–semiconductor hybrid. Nature Commun. 3, 959 (2012).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Crowder, B. L. & Hammer, W. N. Shallow acceptor states in ZnTe and CdTe. Phys. Rev. 150, 541–549 (1966).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Baron, T., Saminadayar, K. & Magnea, N. Nitrogen doping of Te-based II–VI compounds during growth by molecular beam epitaxy. J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1354–1370 (1998).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Meier, F. & Zakharchenya, B. P. (eds) Optical Orientation (North-Holland, 1984).

  14. 14

    Debus, J. et al. Spin-flip Raman scattering of the neutral and charged excitons confined in a CdTe/(Cd, Mg)Te quantum well. Phys. Rev. B 87, 205316 (2013).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Dzhioev, R. I., Zakharchenya, B. P. & Korenev, V. L. Optical orientation study of thin ferromagnetic films in a ferromagnet/semiconductor structure. Phys. Solid State 37, 1929–1935 (1995).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Korenev, V. L. Optical orientation in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 114012 (2008).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Schaack, G. Observation of circularly polarized phonon states in an external magnetic field. J. Phys. C 9, L297–L301 (1976).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Tucker, J. W. & Rampton, V. W. Microwave Ultrasonics in Solid State Physics (North-Holland, 1972).

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Kittel, C. Interaction of spin waves and ultrasonic waves in ferromagnetic crystalls. Phys. Rev. 110, 836–841 (1958).

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Bombeck, M. et al. Magnetization precession induced by quasitransverse picosecond strain pulses in (311) ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)As. Phys. Rev. B 87, 060302(R) (2013).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Ivchenko, E. L. & Pikus, G. E. Superlattices and Other Heterostructures. Symmetry and Optical Phenomena Vol. 110 (Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences, Springer, 1995).

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Cohen-Tannoudji, C. & Dupont-Roc, J. Experimental study of Zeeman light shifts in weak magnetic fields. Phys. Rev. A 5, 968–984 (1972).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Sapega, V. F. et al. Resonant Raman scattering due to bound-carrier spin-flip in GaAs/AlxGa1−x As quantum wells. Phys. Rev. B 50, 2510–2519 (1994).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Lampel, G. Nuclear dynamic polarization by optical electronic saturation and optical pumping in semiconductors. Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 491–493 (1968).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Kastler, A. Nobel Lecture Physics 1963–1970 186–204 (World Scientific, 1998).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank B. Glavin and A. Scherbakov for discussions. We acknowledge support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and Russian Foundation for Basic Research in the frame of the ICRC TRR 160, the Government of Russia via project N14.Z50.31.0021, and the Program of Russian Academy of Sciences. V.L.K. acknowledges support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the Gerhard Mercator professorship programme. The work in Poland was partially supported by the Polish National Science Center under grant numbers DEC-2012/06/A/ST3/00247 and DEC-2014/14/M/ST3/00484. T.W. also acknowledges support from the Foundation for Polish Science through the International Outgoing Scholarship 2014.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

V.L.K., M.S., I.A.A., V.F.S., L.L., I.V.K., J.D., R.I.D. and D.M. performed the experiments and analysed the data. V.L.K. developed the theoretical model. C.S. and H.H. performed AFM measurements. G.K., M.W. and T.W. fabricated the samples. V.L.K., I.A.A., D.R.Y., Yu.G.K, and M.B. co-wrote the paper. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to V. L. Korenev or I. A. Akimov.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary information

Supplementary information (PDF 1050 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Korenev, V., Salewski, M., Akimov, I. et al. Long-range pd exchange interaction in a ferromagnet–semiconductor hybrid structure. Nature Phys 12, 85–91 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphys3497

Download citation

Further reading

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing