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Phase-change materials for non-volatile photonic applications

Abstract

Phase-change materials (PCMs) provide a unique combination of properties. On transformation from the amorphous to crystalline state, their optical properties change drastically. Short optical or electrical pulses can be utilized to switch between these states, making PCMs attractive for photonic applications. We review recent developments in PCMs and evaluate the potential for all-photonic memories. Towards this goal, the progress and existing challenges to realize waveguides with stepwise adjustable transmission are presented. Colour-rendering and nanopixel displays form another interesting application. Finally, nanophotonic applications based on plasmonic nanostructures are introduced. They provide reconfigurable, non-volatile functionality enabling manipulation and control of light. Requirements and perspectives to successfully implement PCMs in emerging areas of photonics are discussed.

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Figure 1: Optical properties of PCMs.
Figure 2: Map for numerous compounds with an average of three p electrons.
Figure 3: Conceptual phase-change photonic memory.
Figure 4: Thin-film displays.
Figure 5: PCMs for active nanophotonics.

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Acknowledgements

M.W. acknowledges funding through SFB 917 (Nanoswitches) and an European Research Council Advanced Grant 340698 ('Disorder control') as well as help from J.-Y. Raty, F. Lange and S. Jakobs in preparing Figs 1,2,3. T.T. acknowledges funding through SFB 917 (Nanoswitches) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (funding program Photonics Research Germany, contract no. 13N14151).

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Wuttig, M., Bhaskaran, H. & Taubner, T. Phase-change materials for non-volatile photonic applications. Nature Photon 11, 465–476 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2017.126

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