Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1,550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radiofrequency field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic-crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Together with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which radiofrequency-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical and mechanical domains.
This is a preview of subscription content
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Aspelmeyer, M., Kippenberg, T. J. & Marquardt, F. Cavity optomechanics. Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391 (2014).
Metcalfe, M. Applications of cavity optomechanics. Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 031105 (2014).
Favero, I. & Karrai, K. Optomechanics of deformable optical cavities. Nature Photon. 3, 201–205 (2009).
Kippenberg, T. J. & Vahala, K. J. Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscale. Science 321, 1172–1176 (2008).
Pant, R. et al. On-chip stimulated Brillouin scattering. Opt. Express 19, 8285–8290 (2011).
Shin, H. et al. Tailorable stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanoscale silicon waveguides. Nature Commun. 4, 1944 (2013).
Van Laer, R., Kuyken, B., Van Thourhout, D. & Baets, R. Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire. Nature Photon. 9, 199–203 (2015).
Matsko, A., Savchenkov, A., Ilchenko, V., Seidel, D. & Maleki, L. Optomechanics with surface-acoustic-wave whispering-gallery modes. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 257403 (2009).
Bahl, G., Zehnpfennig, J., Tomes, M. & Carmon, T. Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice. Nature Commun. 2, 403 (2011).
Li, J., Lee, H. & Vahala, K. J. Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator. Nature Commun. 4, 2097 (2013).
Wilson, D. J. et al. Measurement-based control of a mechanical oscillator at its thermal decoherence rate. 524, 325–329 (2015).
Andrews, R. et al. Bidirectional and efficient conversion between microwave and optical light. Nature Phys. 10, 321–326 (2014).
Winger, M. et al. A chip-scale integrated cavity-electro-optomechanics platform. Opt. Express 19, 24905–24921 (2011).
Miao, H., Srinivasan, K. & Aksyuk, V. A microelectromechanically controlled cavity optomechanical sensing system. New J. Phys. 14, 075015 (2012).
Bochmann, J., Vainsencher, A., Awschalom, D. D. & Cleland, A. N. Nanomechanical coupling between microwave and optical photons. Nature Phys. 9, 712–716 (2013).
Fong, K. Y., Fan, L., Jiang, L., Han, X. & Tang, H. X. Microwave-assisted coherent and nonlinear control in cavity piezo-optomechanical systems. Phys. Rev. A 90, 051801 (2014).
Baker, C. et al. Photoelastic coupling in gallium arsenide optomechanical disk resonators. Opt. Express 22, 14072–14086 (2014).
Balram, K. C., Davanço, M., Lim, J. Y., Song, J. D. & Srinivasan, K. Moving boundary and photoelastic coupling in gaas optomechanical resonators. Optica 1, 414–420 (2014).
de Lima, M. M. Jr & Santos, P. V. Modulation of photonic structures by surface acoustic waves. Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1639–1701 (2005).
Eichenfield, M., Chan, J., Camacho, R. M., Vahala, K. J. & Painter, O. Optomechanical crystals. Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).
Chan, J., Safavi-Naeini, A. H., Hill, J. T., Meenehan, S. & Painter, O. Optimized optomechanical crystal cavity with acoustic radiation shield. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081115 (2012).
Campbell, C. K. Applications of surface acoustic and shallow bulk acoustic wave devices. Proc. IEEE 77, 1453–1484 (1989).
Campbell, C. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Mobile and Wireless Communications (Academic, 1998).
Safavi-Naeini, A. H. & Painter, O. Design of optomechanical cavities and waveguides on a simultaneous bandgap phononic–photonic crystal slab. Opt. Express 18, 14926–14943 (2010).
Tadesse, S. A. & Li, M. Sub-optical wavelength acoustic wave modulation of integrated photonic resonators at microwave frequencies. Nature Commun. 5, 5402 (2014).
Li, H., Tadesse, S. A., Liu, Q. & Li, M. Nanophotonic cavity optomechanics with propagating acoustic waves at frequencies up to 12 GHz. Optica 2, 826–831 (2015).
Agarwal, G. & Huang, S. Electromagnetically induced transparency in mechanical effects of light. Phys. Rev. A 81, 041803 (2010).
Weis, S. et al. Optomechanically induced transparency. Science 330, 1520–1523 (2010).
Safavi-Naeini, A. H. et al. Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics. 472, 69–73 (2011).
Arimondo, E. Coherent Populating Trapping in Laser Spectroscopy 257–354 (Elsevier Science, 1996).
Khan, S., Kumar, M., Chanu, S. R., Bharti, V. & Natarajan, V. Coherent population trapping (CPT) versus electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Preprint at http://arXiv.org/abs/1503.06956 (2015).
Wang, Y.-D. & Clerk, A. A. Using interference for high fidelity quantum state transfer in optomechanics. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153603 (2012).
Dong, C., Fiore, V., Kuzyk, M. C. & Wang, H. Optomechanical dark mode. Science 338, 1609–1613 (2012).
Hill, J. T., Safavi-Naeini, A. H., Chan, J. & Painter, O. Coherent optical wavelength conversion via cavity optomechanics. Nature Commun. 3, 1196 (2012).
Liu, Y., Davanço, M., Aksyuk, V. & Srinivasan, K. Electromagnetically induced transparency and wideband wavelength conversion in silicon nitride microdisk optomechanical resonators. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 223603 (2013).
Safavi-Naeini, A. H. & Painter, O. Proposal for an optomechanical traveling wave phonon–photon translator. New J. Phys. 13, 013017 (2011).
Habraken, S., Stannigel, K., Lukin, M. D., Zoller, P. & Rabl, P. Continuous mode cooling and phonon routers for phononic quantum networks. New J. Phys. 14, 115004 (2012).
De Lima, M. Jr, Alsina, F., Seidel, W. & Santos, P. Focusing of surface-acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces. J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7848–7855 (2003).
Khelif, A., Choujaa, A., Benchabane, S., Djafari-Rouhani, B. & Laude, V. Guiding and bending of acoustic waves in highly confined phononic crystal waveguides. Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4400–4402 (2004).
Maldovan, M. Sound and heat revolutions in phononics. Nature 503, 209–217 (2013).
Olsson Iii, R. & El-Kady, I. Microfabricated phononic crystal devices and applications. Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 012002 (2009).
Hatanaka, D., Mahboob, I., Onomitsu, K. & Yamaguchi, H. Phonon waveguides for electromechanical circuits. Nature Nanotech. 9, 520–524 (2014).
Mohammadi, S. & Adibi, A. On chip complex signal processing devices using coupled phononic crystal slab resonators and waveguides. AIP Adv. 1, 041903 (2011).
Metcalfe, M., Carr, S. M., Muller, A., Solomon, G. S. & Lawall, J. Resolved sideband emission of InAs/GaAs quantum dots strained by surface acoustic waves. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 037401 (2010).
Fuhrmann, D. A. et al. Dynamic modulation of photonic crystal nanocavities using gigahertz acoustic phonons. Nature Photon. 5, 605–609 (2011).
Yeo, I. et al. Strain-mediated coupling in a quantum dot–mechanical oscillator hybrid system. Nature Nanotech. 9, 106–110 (2014).
Lodahl, P., Mahmoodian, S. & Stobbe, S. Interfacing single photons and single quantum dots with photonic nanostructures. Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 347 (2015).
K.C.B. acknowledges support under the Cooperative Research Agreement between the University of Maryland and NIST-CNST (award no. 70NANB10H193). J.D.S. acknowledges support from the KIST flagship institutional programme. The authors thank D. Rutter and A. Band for help with microwave electronics. This work was partially supported by the DARPA MESO programme.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Balram, K., Davanço, M., Song, J. et al. Coherent coupling between radiofrequency, optical and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits. Nature Photon 10, 346–352 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2016.46
Nature Communications (2022)
npj Quantum Information (2022)
Nature Communications (2022)
Nature Communications (2021)
Impact of the central frequency of environment on non-Markovian dynamics in piezoelectric optomechanical devices
Scientific Reports (2021)