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    Photovoltaic Conversion of Solar Energy for Terrestrial Applications Workshop (23–25 October 1973).

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    Intersolar: global PV growth to top 50 GW in 2015, report says. PV Magazine (11 June 2015);

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    & Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California (2012);

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    et al. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures No. NREL/TP-6A20-52409-1 (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2012);

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The views expressed in this article are those of the authors alone and do not represent the position of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory or other organizations.

Author information


  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA

    • Sarah Kurtz
  2. Director of the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA

    • Harry Atwater
  3. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, 1304 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA

    • Angus Rockett
  4. Director of the Photovoltaics Research Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

    • Tonio Buonassisi
  5. Director of the Quantum Energy and Sustainable Solar Energies Research Center, 551 E Tyler Mall, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA

    • Christiana Honsberg
  6. Executive Director of the Bay Area Photovoltaic Consortium, 476 Lomita Mall, McCullough Building 135, Stanford, California 94305, USA

    • John Benner


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Competing interests

All of the authors are engaged in research related to solar energy. Thus, the authors have a financial interest in this piece, but an equivalent financial interest is held by any researcher writing an opinion editorial related to their field. We acknowledge the conflict and have been mindful of its effect in writing this document.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sarah Kurtz.