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Coherent manipulation, measurement and entanglement of individual solid-state spins using optical fields

Abstract

Realization of a quantum interface between stationary and flying qubits is a requirement for long-distance quantum communication and distributed quantum computation. The prospects for integrating many qubits on a single chip render solid-state spins promising candidates for stationary qubits. Certain solid-state systems, including quantum dots and nitrogen–vacancy centres in diamond, exhibit spin-state-dependent optical transitions, allowing for fast initialization, manipulation and measurement of the spins using laser excitation. Recent progress has brought spin photonics research in these materials into the quantum realm, allowing the demonstration of spin–photon entanglement, which in turn has enabled distant spin entanglement as well as quantum teleportation. Advances in the fabrication of photonic nanostructures hosting spin qubits suggest that chips incorporating a high-efficiency spin–photon interface in a quantum photonic network are within reach.

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Figure 1: Quantum dot spin initialization, detection and manipulation.
Figure 2: Quantum dot spin–photon interface.
Figure 3: Optical detection and spin manipulation of NV centres.
Figure 4: The optical interface of the NV centre.
Figure 5: Spins in silicon carbide and rare-earth-doped crystals.
Figure 6: Spin photonics networks.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Lily Childress, Yves Delley, Aymeric Delteil, Bas Hensen, Martin Kroner, Wolfgang Pfaff, Tim Taminiau, Emre Togan and Sun Zhe for many useful discussions. We acknowledge support from the NCCR Quantum Science and Technology (NCCR QSIT), the research instrument of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNS) under grant no. 200021-140818, the Dutch Organization for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), the EU S3NANO program and the European Research Council through a Starting Grant.

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Gao, W., Imamoglu, A., Bernien, H. et al. Coherent manipulation, measurement and entanglement of individual solid-state spins using optical fields. Nature Photon 9, 363–373 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2015.58

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