Letter | Published:

Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms

Nature Photonics volume 10, pages 159162 (2016) | Download Citation

Abstract

Access to the complete electric field evolution of a laser pulse is essential for attosecond science in general1, and for the scrutiny and control of electron phenomena in solid-state physics specifically2,3,4,5,6. Time-resolved field measurements are routine in the terahertz spectral range, using electro-optic sampling (EOS)7,8,9, photoconductive switches10,11 and field-induced second harmonic generation12,13. EOS in particular features outstanding sensitivity and ease of use, making it the basis of time-resolved spectroscopic measurements14 for studying charge carrier dynamics15,16,17,18,19,20 and active optical devices21. In this Letter, we show that careful optical filtering allows the bandwidth of this technique to be extended to wavelengths as short as 1.2 μm (230 THz) with half-cycle durations 2.3 times shorter than the sampling pulse. In a proof-of-principle application, we measure the influence of optical parametric amplification (OPA) on the electric field dynamics of a few-cycle near-infrared (NIR) pulse.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    & Attosecond physics. Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).

  2. 2.

    et al. Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation. Nature 572, 572–575 (2015).

  3. 3.

    et al. Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light. Nature 493, 75–78 (2013).

  4. 4.

    et al. Coherent ballistic motion of electrons in a periodic potential. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 146602 (2010).

  5. 5.

    et al. Ultrafast multi-terahertz nano-spectroscopy with sub-cycle temporal resolution. Nature Photon. 8, 841–845 (2014).

  6. 6.

    et al. Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations. Nature Photon. 8, 119–123 (2014).

  7. 7.

    & Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams. Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).

  8. 8.

    , , , & Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory. Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516–1518 (1999).

  9. 9.

    , , & Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz. Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).

  10. 10.

    , & Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles. Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984).

  11. 11.

    Ultra-broadband terahertz wave detection using photoconductive antenna. Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8221–8225 (2008).

  12. 12.

    , & Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).

  13. 13.

    et al. Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire ‘terahertz gap’. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

  14. 14.

    et al. Femtosecond response of quasiparticles and phonons in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 studied by wideband terahertz spectroscopy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 067001 (2010).

  15. 15.

    et al. Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3319–3322 (1993).

  16. 16.

    et al. Internal motions of a quasiparticle governing its ultrafast nonlinear response. Nature 450, 1210–1213 (2007).

  17. 17.

    et al. Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 116401 (2007).

  18. 18.

    , , , & High-field terahertz bulk photovoltaic effect in lithium niobate. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 146602 (2014).

  19. 19.

    , , & Electric and magnetic terahertz nonlinearities resolved on the sub-cycle scale. New J. Phys. 15, 065003 (2013).

  20. 20.

    et al. How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma. Nature 414, 286–289 (2001).

  21. 21.

    et al. Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser. Nature 449, 698–701 (2007).

  22. 22.

    et al. Attosecond streak camera. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).

  23. 23.

    et al. Direct measurement of light waves. Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).

  24. 24.

    el al. Petahertz optical oscilloscope. Nature Photon. 7, 958–962 (2013).

  25. 25.

    , & Frequency-resolved optical gating capable of carrier-envelope phase determination. Nature Commun. 4, 2820 (2013).

  26. 26.

    , , & Efficient, octave-spanning difference-frequency generation using few-cycle pulses in simple collinear geometry. Opt. Lett. 38, 4216–4218 (2013).

  27. 27.

    , & Shot noise reduced terahertz detection via spectrally postfiltered electro-optic sampling. Opt. Lett. 39, 2435–2438 (2014).

  28. 28.

    et al. Control of nonlinear spectral phase induced by ultra-broadband optical parametric amplification. Opt. Lett. 37, 3933–3935 (2012).

  29. 29.

    et al. Carrier-envelope-phase-stable, 1.2 mJ, 1.5 cycle laser pulses at 2.1 μm. Opt. Lett. 37, 4973–4975 (2012).

  30. 30.

    et al. High-repetition-rate picosecond pump laser based on a Yb:YAG disk amplifier for optical parametric amplification. Opt. Lett. 34, 2123–2125 (2009).

  31. 31.

    & Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime. Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282–3285 (1997).

  32. 32.

    , & Optical parametric properties of 532-nm-pumped beta-barium-borate near the infrared absorption edge. Opt. Commun. 184, 485–491 (2000).

  33. 33.

    , , & Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3. Appl. Phys. B 91, 343–348 (2008).

Download references

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge support from LASERLAB-EUROPE (grant agreement no. 284464, the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme) and the Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics. S.S. acknowledges financial support from the Banting Postdoctoral Fellowship program.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany

    • Sabine Keiber
    • , Shawn Sederberg
    • , Alexander Schwarz
    • , Michael Trubetskov
    • , Volodymyr Pervak
    • , Ferenc Krausz
    •  & Nicholas Karpowicz
  2. Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany

    • Sabine Keiber
    • , Volodymyr Pervak
    •  & Ferenc Krausz
  3. Research Computing Center, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119992 Moscow, Russia

    • Michael Trubetskov

Authors

  1. Search for Sabine Keiber in:

  2. Search for Shawn Sederberg in:

  3. Search for Alexander Schwarz in:

  4. Search for Michael Trubetskov in:

  5. Search for Volodymyr Pervak in:

  6. Search for Ferenc Krausz in:

  7. Search for Nicholas Karpowicz in:

Contributions

The measurement was performed by S.K., S.S. and N.K. The OPCPA was prepared by A.S., S.K., F.K. and N.K. The specialized multilayer optics were designed and fabricated by M.T. and V.P. The simulations were performed by and the experimental concept was conceived by N.K. All authors reviewed and contributed to the final manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nicholas Karpowicz.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary information

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2015.269

Further reading