Even for simple systems, the interpretations of new attosecond measurements are complicated and provide only a glimpse of their potential. Nonetheless, the lasting impact will be the revelation of how short-time dynamics can determine the electronic properties of more complex systems.

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Acknowledgements

This Commentary evolved from the presentations and discussions at the workshop “Unraveling the Interpretations of Attosecond Measurements” held in March 2013 in Washington, DC, sponsored by the Council on Chemical and Biochemical Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The authors are grateful to the members of the Council for their encouragement and assistance in developing this workshop. In addition, the authors acknowledge the agencies that provided funding for individual research programs in attosecond and related science, without which this workshop and Commentary would not have been possible.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA

    • Stephen R. Leone
    •  & Adrian N. Pfeiffer
  2. Ultrafast X-Ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA

    • Stephen R. Leone
    • , C. William McCurdy
    •  & Adrian N. Pfeiffer
  3. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA

    • C. William McCurdy
  4. Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna, Austria

    • Joachim Burgdörfer
  5. Theoretische Chemie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, D69120 Heidelberg, Germany

    • Lorenz S. Cederbaum
  6. CREOL and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA

    • Zenghu Chang
  7. Department of Physics and Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel

    • Nirit Dudovich
  8. Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain

    • Johannes Feist
  9. Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA

    • Chris H. Greene
  10. Max Born Institute, Max Born Strasse 2A, 12489 Berlin Adlershof, Berlin, Germany

    • Misha Ivanov
    •  & Marc J. J. Vrakking
  11. Department of Physics, Humboldt University, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany

    • Misha Ivanov
  12. Department of Physics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, SW7 2AZ London, UK

    • Misha Ivanov
  13. Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, Garching 85748, Germany

    • Reinhard Kienberger
    •  & Matthias F. Kling
  14. Department of Physics, Technische Universität München, James Franck Strasse, Garching 85748, Germany

    • Reinhard Kienberger
  15. Physics Department, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland

    • Ursula Keller
  16. Physics Department, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching, Germany

    • Matthias F. Kling
  17. Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry and Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, S637371 Singapore

    • Zhi-Heng Loh
  18. Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany

    • Thomas Pfeifer
  19. Center for Quantum Dynamics, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany

    • Thomas Pfeifer
  20. Institute for Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1,07743 Jena, Germany

    • Adrian N. Pfeiffer
  21. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany

    • Robin Santra
  22. Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9, D-20355 Hamburg, Germany

    • Robin Santra
  23. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA

    • Kenneth Schafer
  24. Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada

    • Albert Stolow
  25. Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada

    • Albert Stolow
  26. SDT, Emerging Technologies Division, National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OR6, Canada

    • Albert Stolow
  27. J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA

    • Uwe Thumm

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Correspondence to Stephen R. Leone.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2014.48

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