Letter | Published:

Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light

Nature Photonics volume 7, pages 613619 (2013) | Download Citation

Abstract

Nearly a century after Einstein first predicted the existence of gravitational waves, a global network of Earth-based gravitational wave observatories1,2,3,4 is seeking to directly detect this faint radiation using precision laser interferometry. Photon shot noise, due to the quantum nature of light, imposes a fundamental limit on the attometre-level sensitivity of the kilometre-scale Michelson interferometers deployed for this task. Here, we inject squeezed states to improve the performance of one of the detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) beyond the quantum noise limit, most notably in the frequency region down to 150 Hz, critically important for several astrophysical sources, with no deterioration of performance observed at any frequency. With the injection of squeezed states, this LIGO detector demonstrated the best broadband sensitivity to gravitational waves ever achieved, with important implications for observing the gravitational-wave Universe with unprecedented sensitivity.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge support from the United States National Science Foundation for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory, and the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for supporting the construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. The authors also acknowledge support for the research, by these agencies and by the Australian Research Council, the International Science Linkages programme of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Italy, the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, the Conselleria d'Economia, Hisenda i Innovació of the Govern de les Illes Balears, the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Research Foundation of Korea, Industry Canada and the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation, the National Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, the Carnegie Trust, the Leverhulme Trust, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Research Corporation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. LIGO – California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA

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  2. SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK

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  3. LIGO – Livingston Observatory, Livingston, Louisiana 70754, USA

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    • , D. O. Bridges
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  4. Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover, Germany

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    • , K. Wiesner
    • , B. Willke
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    • , L. Winkelmann
    • , W. Winkler
    •  & H. Wittel
  5. University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, USA

    • B. Allen
    • , E. Amador Ceron
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    •  & A. G. Wiseman
  6. Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA

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    • , T. Bhadbhade
    • , R. L. Byer
    • , D. E. Clark
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  7. LIGO – Hanford Observatory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA

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    •  & J. Worden
  8. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA

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    •  & L. Williams
  9. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA

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    •  & A. Mullavey
  10. University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK

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  11. Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany

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    • , C. Aulbert
    • , J. Bauchrowitz
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    • , A. Bertolini
    • , O. Bock
    • , C. Bogan
    • , M. Born
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    • , M. Brinkmann
    • , M. Britzger
    • , K. Dahl
    • , M. Damjanic
    • , K. Danzmann
    • , T. Denker
    • , T. Dent
    • , I. Di Palma
    • , K. L. Dooley
    • , T. Eberle
    • , H. Fehrmann
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    • , T. T. Fricke
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    • , E. Goetz
    • , S. Goßler
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    • , H. Grote
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    • , M. Hewitson
    • , H. Kaufer
    • , F. Kawazoe
    • , D. Keitel
    • , D. G. Keppel
    • , A. Khalaidovski
    • , V. Kringel
    • , B. Krishnan
    • , G. Kuehn
    • , J. R. Leong
    • , H. Lück
    • , A. P. Lundgren
    • , B. Machenschalk
    • , G. Mazzolo
    • , M. Mehmet
    • , T. Meier
    • , F. Mokler
    • , K. Mossavi
    • , C. M. Mow-Lowry
    • , P. Oppermann
    • , M. Pickenpack
    • , H. J. Pletsch
    • , J. Pöld
    • , M. Prijatelj
    • , C. Röver
    • , A. Rüdiger
    • , F. Salemi
    • , R. Schilling
    • , R. Schnabel
    • , D. Schuette
    • , B. Schulz
    • , M. Shaltev
    • , D. Simakov
    • , J. Slutsky
    • , J. Steinlechner
    • , S. Steinlechner
    • , S. P. Tarabrin
    • , H. Vahlbruch
    • , A. Wanner
    • , M. Was
    • , M. Weinert
    • , P. Wessels
    • , T. Westphal
    • , K. Wette
    • , K. Wiesner
    • , B. Willke
    • , M. Wimmer
    • , L. Winkelmann
    • , W. Winkler
    •  & H. Wittel
  12. Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, D-14476 Golm, Germany

    • S. Babak
    • , B. Behnke
    • , S. Drasco
    • , S. Grunewald
    • , P. Leaci
    • , G. Manca
    • , M. A. Papa
    • , C. Peralta
    • , E. L. Robinson
    •  & B. F. Schutz
  13. Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA

    • P. T. Baker
    •  & N. Cornish
  14. Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota 55057, USA

    • N. Christensen
  15. LIGO – Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachussetts 02139, USA

    • L. Barsotti
    • , S. Biscans
    • , T. P. Bodiya
    • , F. Donovan
    • , S. Dwyer
    • , R. Essick
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    • , S. Vitale
    • , S. J. Waldman
    • , R. Weiss
    • , C. C. Wipf
    • , F. Zhang
    •  & M. E. Zucker
  16. University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia

    • D. Blair
    • , X. Chen
    • , Q. Chu
    • , D. M. Coward
    • , S. L. Danilishin
    • , J-C. Dumas
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    • , S. Susmithan
    • , S. Verma
    • , L. Wen
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    • , C. Zhao
    •  & X. J. Zhu
  17. Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA

    • I. Bartos
    • , S. Countryman
    • , M. Factourovich
    • , S. Márka
    • , Z. Márka
    • , L. Matone
    • , D. Murphy
    • , P. Raffai
    •  & M. Tse
  18. The University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, Texas 78520, USA

    • T. D. Creighton
    • , H. Daveloza
    • , M. Díaz
    • , S. R. Morriss
    • , S. Mukherjee
    • , M. E. Normandin
    • , O. Puncken
    • , V. Quetschke
    • , M. Rakhmanov
    • , R. Stone
    • , A. S. Stroeer
    •  & C. V. Torres
  19. San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95192, USA

    • P. T. Beyersdorf
    • , M. Cordier
    •  & K. McAuley
  20. Moscow State University, Moscow 119992, Russia

    • I. A. Bilenko
    • , V. B. Braginsky
    • , M. L. Gorodetsky
    • , F. Y. Khalili
    • , V. P. Mitrofanov
    • , L. G. Prokhorov
    • , S. E. Strigin
    •  & S. P. Vyatchanin
  21. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA

    • L. S. Finn
    • , B. J. Owen
    •  & H. Zhu
  22. Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA

    • S. Bose
    • , T. Dayanga
    • , S. Ghosh
    •  & S. Steplewski
  23. Caltech–CaRT, Pasadena, California 91125, USA

    • Y. Chen
    • , S. Gossan
    • , T. Hong
    • , H. Miao
    • , C. D. Ott
    • , K. S. Thorne
    • , M. Vallisneri
    •  & H. Yang
  24. University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA

    • J. E. Brau
    • , R. Frey
    • , E. D. Harstad
    • , R. Quitzow-James
    • , R. M. S. Schofield
    •  & D. Talukder
  25. Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244, USA

    • S. Ballmer
    • , D. A. Brown
    • , P. Couvares
    • , R. P. Fisher
    • , I. W. Harry
    • , E. A. Huerta
    • , D. B. Kelley
    • , P. Kumar
    • , J. Lough
    • , S. R. P. Mohapatra
    • , A. Nitz
    • , A. Perreca
    • , P. R. Saulson
    •  & M. West
  26. Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, HSIC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX, UK

    • R. J. S. Greenhalgh
    •  & J. O'Dell
  27. University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA

    • A. Buonanno
    • , C. D. Capano
    • , Y. Pan
    • , P. Shawhan
    •  & C. C. Yancey
  28. University of Massachusetts – Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA

    • L. Cadonati
    • , J. A. Clark
    • , D. Hoak
    • , A. L. Lombardi
    •  & J. McIver
  29. The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, USA

    • C. Arceneaux
    • , M. Cavaglià
    •  & A. Dietz
  30. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA

    • L. Blackburn
    • , J. B. Camp
    • , N. Gehrels
    • , P. B. Graff
    •  & J. B. Kanner
  31. Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

    • J. Cao
    • , Z. Du
    • , Y. Liu
    • , Y. Wan
    •  & X. Wang
  32. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA

    • S. Caride
    • , R. Gustafson
    • , G. D. Meadors
    • , K. Riles
    •  & J. Sanders
  33. Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678, Australia

    • P. Charlton
  34. Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia

    • B. C. Buchler
    • , J. H. Chow
    • , S. S. Y Chua
    • , R. Inta
    • , P. K. Lam
    • , D. E. McClelland
    • , J. Miller
    • , T. Nguyen
    • , S. M. Scott
    • , D. A. Shaddock
    • , B. J. J Slagmolen
    • , M. Stefszky
    • , A. Stochino
    • , A. Wade
    •  & R. L. Ward
  35. The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia

    • C. T. Y. Chung
    • , P. D. Lasky
    • , A. Melatos
    •  & L. Sammut
  36. Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK

    • T. Adams
    • , M. Edwards
    • , S. Fairhurst
    • , E. Macdonald
    • , D. M. Macleod
    • , C. Messenger
    • , L. K. Nuttall
    • , F. Ohme
    • , V. Predoi
    • , B. S. Sathyaprakash
    • , B. F. Schutz
    • , P. J. Sutton
    •  & J. Veitch
  37. University of Salerno, I- 84084 Fisciano (Salerno), and INFN (Sezione di Napoli), Italy

    • F. Postiglione
  38. The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK

    • E. J. Daw
    • , C. Tomlinson
    •  & D. J. White
  39. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune – 11007, India

    • S. Dhurandhar
    • , S. Mitra
    •  & T. Souradeep
  40. Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70813, USA

    • S. C. McGuire
    •  & R. Vincent-Finley
  41. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA

    • S. Kandhasamy
    • , A. Kremin
    • , V. Mandic
    •  & T. Prestegard
  42. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA

    • R. W. P. Drever
  43. Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA

    • B. F. Farr
    • , W. Farr
    • , D. Fazi
    • , Y. J. Jang
    • , V. Kalogera
    • , C. Rodriguez
    • , M. S. Shahriar
    • , D. Stevens
    • , M. V. van der Sluys
    • , J. Yablon
    •  & H. Yum
  44. The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA

    • R. A. Matzner
    •  & L. Rodriguez
  45. MTA–Eotvos University, Lendulet A. R. G., Budapest 1117, Hungary

    • Z. Frei
    • , G. Gelencser
    •  & G. Szeifert
  46. Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, Arizona 86301, USA

    • A. M. Gretarsson
    • , B. Hughey
    • , E. Jesse
    • , K. Loew
    •  & M. Zanolin
  47. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan

    • M-K. Fujimoto
    • , K. Hayama
    • , K. Izumi
    • , S. Kawamura
    • , T. Mori
    • , E. Nishida
    •  & A. Nishizawa
  48. University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia

    • J. Munch
    • , D. J. Ottaway
    •  & P. J. Veitch
  49. Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain

    • J. Burguet-Castell
    • , S. Gil-Casanova
    •  & A. M. Sintes
  50. University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

    • D. I. Jones
  51. Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod 603950, Russia

    • E. A. Khazanov
    •  & A. Sergeev
  52. SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, UK

    • N. A. Lockerbie
    •  & K. V. Tokmakov
  53. Abilene Christian University, Abilene Texas 79699, USA

    • J. L. Willis
  54. Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York 14456, USA

    • R. Kasturi
    •  & S. Penn
  55. University of Sannio at Benevento, I-82100 Benevento, and INFN (Sezione di Napoli), Italy

    • P. Addesso
    • , R. DeSalvo
    • , V. Pierro
    •  & I. M. Pinto
  56. Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana 71272, USA

    • T. Reed
    •  & N. Zotov
  57. Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan 49104, USA

    • T. Z. Summerscales
  58. McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609, USA

    • G. Santostasi
  59. California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, California 92831, USA

    • C. Griffo
    • , B. J. Kuper
    • , J. Lee
    • , F. Magaña-Sandoval
    • , C. Padilla
    •  & J. R. Smith
  60. Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas 78212, USA

    • D. Ugolini
  61. Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623, USA

    • A. D. Castiglia
    • , M. A. Frei
    • , S. R. P. Mohapatra
    •  & J. T. Whelan
  62. Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, Louisiana 70402, USA

    • W. Parkinson
    •  & S. Yoshida
  63. Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8, Canada

    • K. Cannon
  64. Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Korea

    • H-S. Cho
    • , Y-M. Kim
    •  & C-H. Lee
  65. West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, USA

  66. Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Korea

    • K. Kim
    •  & H. K. Lee
  67. Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon 305-806, Korea

    • H. Jang
    • , G. Kang
    • , B. K. Kim
    •  & C. Kim
  68. National Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Daejeon 305-390, Korea

    • J. J. Oh
    • , S. H. Oh
    •  & E. J. Son
  69. Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea

    • H. M. Lee
  70. University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9, Hungary

    • L. Á. Gergely
  71. Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Canada

    • C. Hanna
  72. University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824, USA

    • M. Holtrop
  73. University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK

    • M. W. Coughlin
    •  & J. Gair
  74. American University, Washington, DC 20016, USA

    • G. M. Harry
  75. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12227-010 – São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil

    • O. D. Aguiar
    • , M. Constancio Junior
    •  & C. A. Costa
  76. University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-4290, USA

    • K. Venkateswara
  77. National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu Taiwan 300, China

    • S. Chao
    • , V. Huang
    • , J. Ou
    •  & J. Wang
  78. SUPA, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, UK

    • S. Reid
  79. The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA

    • A. Corsi
  80. Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, Karnataka 560080, India

    • B. R. Iyer
  81. Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba 5000, Argentina

    • C. Kozameh
  82. IISER-Kolkata, Mohanpur West, Bengal 741252, India

    • R. Nayak
  83. IISER–TVM, CET Campus, Trivandrum Kerala 695016, India

    • K. Haris
    •  & A. Pai
  84. RRCAT, Indore MP 452013, India

    • S. Raja
  85. Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar Ahmedabad Gujarat 382424, India

    • A. S. Sengupta
  86. Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005, India

    • C. S. Unnikrishnan

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