This year marks the tenth anniversary of the identification of the biological function of CRISPR–Cas as adaptive immune systems in bacteria. In just a decade, the characterization of CRISPR–Cas systems has established a novel means of adaptive immunity in bacteria and archaea and deepened our understanding of the interplay between prokaryotes and their environment, and CRISPR-based molecular machines have been repurposed to enable a genome editing revolution. Here, we look back on the historical milestones that have paved the way for the discovery of CRISPR and its function, and discuss the related technological applications that have emerged, with a focus on microbiology. Lastly, we provide a perspective on the impacts the field has had on science and beyond.
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R.B. is supported by funds from North Carolina State University and the North Carolina Ag. Foundation. The authors would like to thank their colleagues and collaborators for their contributions and insights, and for having the privilege to share the CRISPR journey.
R.B. and P.H. are co-inventors on several patents related to CRISPR–Cas systems and their various uses. R.B. is a co-founder and SAB member of Intellia Therapeutics and Locus Biosciences, and a shareholder of Caribou Biosciences and DuPont. P.H. is an employee of DuPont.
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Barrangou, R., Horvath, P. A decade of discovery: CRISPR functions and applications. Nat Microbiol 2, 17092 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmicrobiol.2017.92
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