Subjects

Abstract

Facial expression is widely used as a measure of pain in infants; whether nonhuman animals display such pain expressions has never been systematically assessed. We developed the mouse grimace scale (MGS), a standardized behavioral coding system with high accuracy and reliability; assays involving noxious stimuli of moderate duration are accompanied by facial expressions of pain. This measure of spontaneously emitted pain may provide insight into the subjective pain experience of mice.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (Albemarle, 1872).

  2. 2.

    Behav. Brain Sci. 25, 439–455 (2002).

  3. 3.

    Can. Psychol. 50, 22–32 (2009).

  4. 4.

    & Facial Action Coding System (Consulting Psychologists Press, 1978).

  5. 5.

    & Brain Res. 143, 263–279 (1978).

  6. 6.

    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10, 283–294 (2009).

  7. 7.

    Pain 51, 297–306 (1992).

  8. 8.

    , , & Pain 97, 235–246 (2002).

  9. 9.

    , , & Pain 110, 343–353 (2004).

  10. 10.

    et al. Neuroimage 32, 256–265 (2006).

  11. 11.

    , & Cortex 23, 673–678 (1987).

  12. 12.

    et al. Nat. Neurosci. 11, 843–850 (2008).

  13. 13.

    et al. Neuron 41, 701–710 (2004).

  14. 14.

    et al. Science 312, 1967–1970 (2006).

  15. 15.

    et al. Soc. Neurosci. (in the press).

  16. 16.

    & Psychol. Bull. 86, 420–428 (1979).

  17. 17.

    et al. Pain 80, 67–82 (1999).

  18. 18.

    et al. Pain 126, 24–34 (2006).

  19. 19.

    & Pain 33, 87–107 (1988).

  20. 20.

    , , & J. Urol. 170, 1008–1012 (2003).

  21. 21.

    & Anesthesiology 99, 1023–1027 (2003).

  22. 22.

    , & Pain 64, 493–501 (1996).

  23. 23.

    , & J. Pain 4, 465–470 (2003).

  24. 24.

    & Pain 87, 149–158 (2000).

  25. 25.

    & The Mouse Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2003).

  26. 26.

    , , , & J. Neurosci. Methods 53, 55–63 (1994).

  27. 27.

    , & Lab. Anim. 43, 357–361 (2009).

  28. 28.

    et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 305, 755–764 (2003).

  29. 29.

    et al. Cell 87, 543–552 (1996).

  30. 30.

    et al. Neuron 61, 762–773 (2009).

  31. 31.

    , & N. Engl. J. Med. 346, 257–270 (2002).

  32. 32.

    & Neuron 61, 653–654 (2009).

  33. 33.

    & J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B. 57, 289–300 (1995).

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by the Louise and Alan Edwards Foundation (J.S.M.). D.J.L. was supported by a Canada Graduate Scholarship doctoral award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Psychology and Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    • Dale J Langford
    • , Andrea L Bailey
    • , Mona Lisa Chanda
    • , Sarah E Clarke
    • , Tanya E Drummond
    • , Sarah Glick
    • , Joelle Ingrao
    • , Michael L LaCroix-Fralish
    • , Lynn Matsumiya
    • , Robert E Sorge
    • , Susana G Sotocinal
    • , John M Tabaka
    •  & Jeffrey S Mogil
  2. Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

    • Stephanie Echols
    • , Tammy Klassen-Ross
    • , David Wong
    •  & Kenneth D Craig
  3. Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

    • Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg
  4. Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

    • Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg
    •  & Michel D Ferrari

Authors

  1. Search for Dale J Langford in:

  2. Search for Andrea L Bailey in:

  3. Search for Mona Lisa Chanda in:

  4. Search for Sarah E Clarke in:

  5. Search for Tanya E Drummond in:

  6. Search for Stephanie Echols in:

  7. Search for Sarah Glick in:

  8. Search for Joelle Ingrao in:

  9. Search for Tammy Klassen-Ross in:

  10. Search for Michael L LaCroix-Fralish in:

  11. Search for Lynn Matsumiya in:

  12. Search for Robert E Sorge in:

  13. Search for Susana G Sotocinal in:

  14. Search for John M Tabaka in:

  15. Search for David Wong in:

  16. Search for Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg in:

  17. Search for Michel D Ferrari in:

  18. Search for Kenneth D Craig in:

  19. Search for Jeffrey S Mogil in:

Contributions

D.J.L. and J.S.M. conceived the experiments, and D.J.L. and S.G.S. were primarily responsible for their execution. A.L.B., M.L.C., S.E.C., T.E.D., S.G., M.L.L.-F., L.M., R.E.S. and J.M.T. participated in data collection. S.E., J.I., T.K.-R., D.W. and K.D.C. were responsible for designing the scale. A.M.J.M.v.d.M. and M.D.F. provided transgenic knock-in mice and edited portions of the manuscript. J.S.M. and D.J.L. wrote the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jeffrey S Mogil.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary Text and Figures

    Supplementary Figures 1–3

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1455

Further reading