Coherent X-ray microscopy by phase retrieval of Bragg diffraction intensities enables lattice distortions within a crystal to be imaged at nanometre-scale spatial resolutions in three dimensions. While this capability can be used to resolve structure–property relationships at the nanoscale under working conditions, strict data measurement requirements can limit the application of current approaches. Here, we introduce an efficient method of imaging three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale lattice behaviour and strain fields in crystalline materials with a methodology that we call 3D Bragg projection ptychography (3DBPP). This method enables 3D image reconstruction of a crystal volume from a series of two-dimensional X-ray Bragg coherent intensity diffraction patterns measured at a single incident beam angle. Structural information about the sample is encoded along two reciprocal-space directions normal to the Bragg diffracted exit beam, and along the third dimension in real space by the scanning beam. We present our approach with an analytical derivation, a numerical demonstration, and an experimental reconstruction of lattice distortions in a component of a nanoelectronic prototype device.
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3DBPP simulations and experimental measurements were supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division. Design of the 3DBPP phase retrieval algorithm was partially funded by the French ANR under project number ANR-11-BS10-0005 and the French OPTITEC cluster. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials and the Advanced Photon Source was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Sample manufacturing was performed by the Research Alliance Teams at various IBM Research and Development facilities. The authors also acknowledge A. Pateras for fruitful discussion and A. Diaz for comments on the manuscript.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Hruszkewycz, S., Allain, M., Holt, M. et al. High-resolution three-dimensional structural microscopy by single-angle Bragg ptychography. Nature Mater 16, 244–251 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat4798
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