Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Observation and coherent control of interface-induced electronic resonances in a field-effect transistor

A Corrigendum to this article was published on 01 August 2017

This article has been updated

Abstract

Electronic defect states at material interfaces provide highly deleterious sources of noise in solid-state nanostructures, and even a single trapped charge can qualitatively alter the properties of short one-dimensional nanowire field-effect transistors (FET) and quantum bit (qubit) devices1,2,3,4,5. Understanding the dynamics of trapped charge is thus essential for future nanotechnologies, but their direct detection and manipulation is rather challenging2,4,5. Here, a transistor-based set-up is used to create and probe individual electronic defect states that can be coherently driven with microwave (MW) pulses. Strikingly, we resolve a large number of very high quality (Q 1 × 105) resonances in the transistor current as a function of MW frequency and demonstrate both long decoherence times (1 μs—40 μs) and coherent control of the defect-induced dynamics. Efficiently characterizing over 800 individually addressable resonances across two separate defect-hosting materials, we propose that their properties are consistent with weakly driven two-level systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: TLS spectroscopy.
Figure 2: Dynamics of the TLS.
Figure 3: Ramsey interference.
Figure 4: Power and temperature dependence.

Change history

  • 30 June 2017

    In this work we reported the development of a rigorous mathematical and physical framework in order to model the detailed time-resolved behaviour of over 800 resonances that we studied, through continuous-wave and single-pulse microwave spectroscopy measurements in a field-effect transistor. It has been pointed out to us that we omitted citations to the following works, which report continuous-wave measurements of high-Q resonances in similar devices: T. Ferrus et al., J. Appl. Phys. 106, 033705 (2009); A. Rossi & D. G. Hasko, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 034509 (2010); M. Erfani, D. G. Hasko, A. Rossi, W. S. Cho & J.-B. Choi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 192108 (2011). The observations were assigned by the authors to spatial Rabi oscillations of trapped electrons. In our work, the experimental evidence that is currently available cannot unambiguously assign the microscopic origin of the observed resonances (see conclusions).

References

  1. Salfi, J., Savelyev, I. G., Blumin, M., Nair, S. V. & Ruda, H. E. Direct observation of single-charge-detection capability of nanowire field-effect transistors. Nat. Nanotech. 5, 737–741 (2010).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Palomaki, T. A. et al. Multilevel spectroscopy of two-level systems coupled to a dc SQUID phase qubit. Phys. Rev. B 81, 144503 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Svensson, S. F. et al. Using polymer electrolyte gates to set-and-freeze threshold voltage and local potential in nanowire-based devices and thermoelectrics. Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 255–262 (2015).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Grabovskij, G. J., Peichl, T., Lisenfeld, J., Weiss, G. & Ustinov, A. V. Strain tuning of individual atomic tunneling systems detected by a superconducting qubit. Science 338, 232–234 (2012).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Lisenfeld, J. et al. Decoherence spectroscopy with individual two-level tunneling defects. Sci. Rep. 6, 23786 (2016).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Mueller, H. H. & Schulz, M. Random telegraph signal: an atomic probe of the local current in field-effect transistors. J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1734–1741 (1998).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Forbes, L. & Miller, D. A. A percolation model for random telegraph signals in metal-oxide-silicon field effect transistor drain current. Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043517 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Salfi, J., Nair, S. V., Savelyev, I. G., Blumin, M. & Ruda, H. E. Evidence for nonlinear screening and enhancement of scattering by a single Coulomb impurity for dielectrically confined electrons in InAs nanowires. Phys. Rev. B 85, 235316 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Zhang, Y. et al. Charge percolation pathways guided by defects in quantum dot solids. Nano Lett. 15, 3249–3253 (2015).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Tabe, M. et al. Single-electron transport through single dopants in a dopant-rich environment. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 016803 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Tabe, M., Udhiarto, A., Moraru, D. & Mizuno, T. Single-photon detection by Si single-electron FETs. Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 646–651 (2011).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Kohler, S., Lehmann, J. & Hänggi, P. Driven quantum transport on the nanoscale. Phys. Rep. 406, 379–443 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Ovadyahu, Z. Microwave-enhanced hopping conductivity: a non-ohmic effect. Phys. Rev. B 84, 165209 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Luk’yanchuk, B. et al. The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials. Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Anderson, P. W., Halperin, B. I. & Varma, C. M. Anomalous low-temperature thermal properties of glasses and spin glasses. Philos. Mag. 25, 1–9 (1972).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Paladino, E., Galperin, Y. M., Falci, G. & Altshuler, B. L. 1/f noise: implications for solid-state quantum information. Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 361–418 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Hollenberg, L. C. L. et al. Charge-based quantum computing using single donors in semiconductors. Phys. Rev. B 69, 113301 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Shi, Z. et al. Fast coherent manipulation of three-electron states in a double quantum dot. Nat. Commun. 5, 3020 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Urdampilleta, M. et al. Charge dynamics and spin blockade in a hybrid double quantum dot in silicon. Phys. Rev. X 5, 031024 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  20. Neeley, M. et al. Process tomography of quantum memory in a Josephson-phase qubit coupled to a two-level state. Nat. Phys. 4, 523–526 (2008).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Lisenfeld, J. et al. Observation of directly interacting coherent two-level systems in an amorphous material. Nat. Commun. 6, 6182 (2015).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Scully, M. O. & Zubairy, M. S. Quantum Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997).

    Book  Google Scholar 

  23. Pla, J. J. et al. High-fidelity readout and control of a nuclear spin qubit in silicon. Nature 496, 334–338 (2013).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Burnett, J. et al. Evidence for interacting two-level systems from the 1/f noise of a superconducting resonator. Nat. Commun. 5, 4119 (2014).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Martinis, J. M. et al. Decoherence in Josephson qubits from dielectric loss. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 210503 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Wolfowicz, G. et al. Atomic clock transitions in silicon-based spin qubits. Nat. Nanotech. 8, 561–564 (2013).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Faoro, L. & Ioffe, L. B. Quantum two level systems and Kondo-like traps as possible sources of decoherence in superconducting qubits. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 047001 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Thorbeck, T. & Zimmerman, N. M. Formation of strain-induced quantum dots in gated semiconductor nanostructures. AIP Adv. 5, 087107 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Shalibo, Y. et al. Lifetime and coherence of two-level defects in a Josephson junction. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 177001 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Neeley, M. et al. Process tomography of quantum memory in a Josephson-phase qubit coupled to a two-level state. Nat. Phys. 4, 523–526 (2008).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

J.O.T.-P. would like to acknowledge financial support from the Cambridge Overseas Trust and the Mexican National Council on Science and Technology (CONACyT). E.D.H. would like to acknowledge financial support from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). S.F. would like to acknowledge financial support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). A.W.C. acknowledges support from the Winton Programme for the Physics of Sustainability. We would like to thank A. Nunnenkamp (University of Cambridge, UK) and H. Baranger (Duke University) for useful discussions.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

J.O.T.-P., S.F. and E.D.H. performed and designed the experiments, prepared the samples and performed data processing and analysis. C.C. and A.W.C. performed theoretical modelling. J.O.T.-P., E.D.H., C.C. and A.W.C. performed the numerical simulations. J.O.T.-P., C.C. and A.W.C. conceived the work and wrote the manuscript in consultation with S.O. and W.I.M., and all authors commented on the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to J. O. Tenorio-Pearl or A. W. Chin.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Information (PDF 2047 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tenorio-Pearl, J., Herbschleb, E., Fleming, S. et al. Observation and coherent control of interface-induced electronic resonances in a field-effect transistor. Nature Mater 16, 208–213 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat4754

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat4754

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing