Nanomaterials have much to offer, not only in deciphering innate immune cell biology and tracking cells, but also in advancing personalized clinical care by providing diagnostic and prognostic information, quantifying treatment efficacy and designing better therapeutics. This Review presents different types of nanomaterial, their biological properties and their applications for imaging macrophages in human diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysm, diabetes and other conditions. We anticipate that future needs will include the development of nanomaterials that are specific for immune cell subsets and can be used as imaging surrogates for nanotherapeutics. New in vivo imaging clinical tools for noninvasive macrophage quantification are thus ultimately expected to become relevant to predicting patients' clinical outcome, defining treatment options and monitoring responses to therapy.
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We would like to thank the National Institutes of Health for supporting this research through the National Cancer Institute Centers of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence consortia and the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Program of Excellence in Nanotechnology consortia. We especially would like to thank our collaborators and members of Chemical Safety Board for many helpful discussions.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Weissleder, R., Nahrendorf, M. & Pittet, M. Imaging macrophages with nanoparticles. Nature Mater 13, 125–138 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat3780
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