Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

A black-carbon mitigation wedge

Comprehensive abatement strategies will be needed to limit global warming. A drastic reduction of black-carbon emissions could provide near-immediate relief with important co-benefits.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Get just this article for as long as you need it


Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Figure 1: Health impacts and source strengths of black carbon.


  1. Ramanathan, V. & Carmichael, G. Nature Geosci. 1, 221–227 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ezzati. M. et al. in Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors (eds Lopez, A. D., Mathers, C. D., Ezzati, M., Jamison, D. T. & Murray, C. J. L.) 241–268 (Oxford Univ. Press, 2006).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Pacala, S. & Socolow, R. Science 305, 968–972 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bond, T. C. & Sun, H. L. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 5921–5926 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Reynolds, C. & Kandlikar, M. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 5860–5865 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bond. T. C. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 109, D14203 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bond, T. C. Environ. Res. Lett. 2, 045030 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Shindell, D. & Faluvegi, G. Nature Geosci. 2, 294–300 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Jacobson, M. Z. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4410 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ezzati, M., Lopez, A. D., Rodgers, A., Vander Hoorn, S. & Murray, C. J. Lancet 360, 1347–1360 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Molina, M. & Molina, L. J. Air Waste Manage. 54, 644–680 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Smith, K. R. & Haigler, E. Annu. Rev. Publ. Health. 29, 11–25 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Smith, K. R., Shuhua, G., Kun, H. & Daxiong, Q. World Dev. 21, 941–961 (1993).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andrew P. Grieshop.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Grieshop, A., Reynolds, C., Kandlikar, M. et al. A black-carbon mitigation wedge. Nature Geosci 2, 533–534 (2009).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing