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Research leading to these findings was supported by the National Science Foundation (C.L.V.D.), Pew Charitable Trusts (C.L.V.D.), International Climate Initiative (GOBI; C.L.V.D.), Université Occidental de Bretagne and Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer (C.L.V.D., L.P.), 7th EU Framework (MIDAS #603418; J.A.A., D.O.B.J., M.G., K.M.G., P.P.E.W.), EU Horizon 2020 (MERCES #689518, D.O.B.J.) and the J.M. Kaplan Fund (L.A.L.).

Author information


  1. Division of Marine Science and Conservation, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina 28516, USA

    • C. L. Van Dover
    • , L. Pendleton
    •  & P. J. Turner
  2. National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK

    • J. A. Ardron
    •  & D. O. B. Jones
  3. UNAM ICML-CU, Biodiversidad y Macroecologia, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico

    • E. Escobar
  4. Deep-Sea Conservation Coalition, Postbus 59681, 1040 LD Amsterdam, Netherlands

    • M. Gianni
  5. IUCN Marine and Polar Programme, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

    • K. M. Gjerde
  6. Macquarie Law School and Macquarie Marine Research Centre, Macquarie University, New South Wales 2109, Australia

    • A. Jaeckel
  7. Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0218 USA

    • L. A. Levin
  8. University College London, Torrens Building, 220 Victoria Square, Adelaide 5000, Australia

    • H. J. Niner
  9. Université de Bretagne Occidentale, UMR6308 AMURE, IUEM, 29280 Plouzané, France

    • L. Pendleton
  10. Department of Oceanography, 1000 Pope Road, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 USA

    • C. R. Smith
  11. Institute of Global Affairs, London School of Economics, London WC2A 2AZ, UK

    • T. Thiele
  12. Department of Biology, Edmondson Hall, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA

    • L. Watling
  13. Seascape Consultants, Romsey SO51 0QA, UK

    • P. P. E. Weaver


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Competing interests

C.L.V.D. and L.A.L. received research support from Nautilus Minerals; C.R.S. received research support from UK Seabed Resources Development Limited.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. L. Van Dover.

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