Rice, J.C. & Allis, C.D. Histone methylation versus histone acetylation: new insights into epigenetic regulation. Curr. Opin. Cell. Biol. 13, 263–273 (2001).
Jenuwein, T. & Allis, C.D. Translating the histone code. Science 293, 1074–1080 (2001).
Strahl, B.D., Ohba, R., Cook, R.G. & Allis, C.D. Methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 is highly conserved and correlates with transcriptionally active nuclei in tetrahymena. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 96, 14967–14972 (1999).
Lachner, M., O'Carroll, D., Rea, S., Mechtler, K. & Jenuwein, T. Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins. Nature 410, 116–120 (2001).
Bannister, A.J. et al. Selective recognition of methylated lysine 9 on histone H3 by the HP1 chromo domain. Nature 410, 120–124 (2001).
Jacobs, S.A. et al. Specificity of the HP1 chromo domain for the methylated N-terminus of histone H3. EMBO J. 20, 5232–5241 (2001).
Nakayama, J., Rice, J.C., Strahl, B.D., Allis, C.D. & Grewal, S.I. Role of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in epigenetic control of heterochromatin assembly. Science 292, 110–113 (2001).
Avner, P. & Heard, E. X-chromosome inactivation: counting, choice and initiation. Nature Rev. Genet. 2, 59–67 (2001).
Morishima, A., Grumbach, M. M. & Taylor, J.H. Asynchronous duplication of human chromosomes and the origin of sex chromatin. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 48, 756–763 (1962).
Barr, M.L. & Carr, D.H. Correlation between sex chromatin and chromosomes. Acta Cytol. 6, 34–45 (1962).
Norris, D.P., Brockdorff, N. & Rastan, S. Methylation status of CpG-rich islands on active and inactive mouse X chromosomes. Mamm. Genome 1, 78–83 (1991).
Jeppesen, P. & Turner, B.M. The inactive X chromosome in female mammals is distinguished by a lack of histone H4 acetylation, a cytogenetic marker for gene expression. Cell 74, 281–289 (1993).
Belyaev, N., Keohane, A.M. & Turner, B.M. Differential underacetylation of histones H2A, H3 and H4 on the inactive X chromosome in human female cells. Hum. Genet. 97, 573–578 (1996).
Boggs, B.A., Connors, B., Sobel, R.E., Chinault, A.C. & Allis, C.D. Reduced levels of histone H3 acetylation on the inactive X chromosome in human females. Chromosoma 105, 303–309 (1996).
Costanzi, C. & Pehrson, J.R. Histone macroH2A1 is concentrated in the inactive X chromosome of female mammals. Nature 393, 599–601 (1998).
Chadwick, B.P. & Willard, H.F. Histone H2A variants and the inactive X chromosome: identification of a second macroH2A variant. Hum. Mol. Genet. 10, 1101–1113 (2001).
Csankovszki, G., Nagy, A. & Jaenisch, R. Synergism of Xist RNA, DNA methylation, and histone hypoacetylation in maintaining X chromosome inactivation. J. Cell Biol. 153, 773–784 (2001).
Gartler, S.M. & Riggs, A.D. Mammalian X-chromosome inactivation. Annu. Rev. Genet. 17, 155–190 (1983).
Perche, P.Y. et al. Higher concentrations of histone macroH2A in the Barr body are correlated with higher nucleosome density. Curr. Biol. 10, 1531–1534 (2000).
Francke, U. Digitized and differentially shaded human chromosome ideograms for genomic applications. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 65, 206–218 (1994).
Carrel, L., Cottle, A.A., Goglin, K.C. & Willard, H.F. A first-generation X-inactivation profile of the human X chromosome. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 96, 14440–14444 (1999).
Ellis, N., Keitges, E., Gartler, S.M. & Rocchi, M. High-frequency reactivation of X-linked genes in Chinese hamster X human hybrid cells. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 13, 191–204 (1987).
Gilbert, S.L. & Sharp, P.A. Promoter-specific hypoacetylation of X-inactivated genes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 96, 13825–13830 (1999).
Peters, A.H.F.M. et al. Histone H3 lysine 9 methylation is an epigenetic imprint for facultative heterochromatin. Nature Genet. DOI: 10.1038/ng 789 (2002).
Heard, E. et al. Methylation of histone H3 at Lys-9 is an early mark on the X chromosome during X-inactivation. Cell (in the press).
Litt, M.D., Simpson, M., Gaszner, M., Allis, C.D. & Felsenfeld, G. Correlation between histone lysine methylation and developmental changes at the chicken β-globin locus. Science 293, 2453–2455 (2001).
Noma, K.I., Allis, C.D. & Grewal, S.I. Transitions in distinct histone h3 methylation patterns at the heterochromatin domain boundaries. Science 293, 1150–1155 (2001).
Strahl, B.D. & Allis, C.D. The language of covalent histone modifications. Nature 403, 41–45 (2000).
Clemson, C.M., McNeil, J.A., Willard, H.F. & Lawrence, J.B. XIST RNA paints the inactive X chromosome at interphase: evidence for a novel RNA involved in nuclear/chromosome structure. J. Cell Biol. 132, 259–275 (1996).
Cheung, P. et al. Synergistic coupling of histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation. Mol. Cell 5, 905–915 (2000).