Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Mutations in sodium-borate cotransporter SLC4A11 cause recessive congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED2)


Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) is a heritable, bilateral corneal dystrophy characterized by corneal opacification and nystagmus. We describe seven different mutations in the SLC4A11 gene in ten families with autosomal recessive CHED. Mutations in SLC4A11, which encodes a membrane-bound sodium-borate cotransporter, cause loss of function of the protein either by blocking its membrane targeting or nonsense-mediated decay.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Cell surface processing and immunolocalization of wild-type (WT) and mutant BTR1.

Accession codes




  1. 1

    Chan, C.C., Green, W.R., Barraquer, J., Barraquer-Somers, E. & de la Cruz, Z.C. Cornea 1, 155–172 (1982).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Kirkness, C.M., McCarthy, A., Rice, N.S., Garner, A. & Steele, A.D. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 71, 130–144 (1987).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Toma, N.M. et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. 4, 2395–2398 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Hand, C.K. et al. Genomics 61, 1–4 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Mohamed, M.D. et al. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 758–759 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Parker, M.D., Ourmozdi, E.P. & Tanner, M.J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 282, 1103–1109 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Alper, S.L., Darman, R.B., Chernova, M.N. & Dahl, N.K. J. Nephrol. (Suppl.) 5, S41–S53 (2002).

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Romero, M.F., Fulton, C.M. & Boron, W.F. Pflugers Arch. 447, 495–509 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Gottsch, J.D. et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 594–599 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Wilusz, C.J., Wormington, M. & Peltz, S.W. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2, 237–246 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Park, M., Li, Q., Shcheynikov, N., Zeng, W. & Muallem, S. Mol. Cell 16, 331–341 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We thank the affected individuals and their families for participating in this study. This work was supported by a grant from the National Medical Research Council of Singapore (NMRC 0940/2005) and the Singapore Eye Research Institute. J.R.C. and P.M. are recipients of scientist and fellowship awards from the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. Research in the laboratory of J.R.C. is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. We thank A. Liu and A. Barathi for assistance with dissection of human and mouse cornea.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Eranga N Vithana.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Fig. 1

CHED2 pedigree from Myanmar and cosegregation analysis of the R755Q mutation. (PDF 107 kb)

Supplementary Fig. 2

Expression of SLC4A11. (PDF 88 kb)

Supplementary Fig. 3

Physical map of CHED2 locus and SLC4A11 mutations. (PDF 285 kb)

Supplementary Fig. 4

Allele sharing between CHED2 families with common mutations G464D and R755Q. (PDF 37 kb)

Supplementary Fig. 5

Conservation of mutated residues of BTR1 as shown by multiple sequence alignment of human BTR1 with homologs and representative members of the human SLC4 family. (PDF 37 kb)

Supplementary Fig. 6

Immunoblot for the BTR1 wild-type (WT) mutants. (PDF 149 kb)

Supplementary Note (PDF 9 kb)

Supplementary Methods (PDF 53 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Vithana, E., Morgan, P., Sundaresan, P. et al. Mutations in sodium-borate cotransporter SLC4A11 cause recessive congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED2). Nat Genet 38, 755–757 (2006).

Download citation

Further reading


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing