Article | Published:

A genetic linkage map of the bovine genome

Abstract

A cattle genetic linkage map was constructed which marks about 90% of the expected length of the cattle genome. Over 200 DNA polymorphisms were genotyped in cattle families which comprise 295 individuals in full sibling pedigrees. One hundred and seventy–one loci were found linked to one other locus. Twenty nine of the 30 chromosome pairs are represented by at least one of the 36 linkage groups. Less than a 50 cM difference was found in the male and female genetic maps. The conserved loci on this map show as many differences in gene order compared to humans as is found between humans and mice. The conservation is consistent with the patterns of karyotypic evolution found in the rodents, primates and artiodactyls. This map will be important for localizing quantitative trait loci and provides a basis for further mapping.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Womack, J.E. & Moll, Y.D. Gene map of the cow: conservation of linkage with mouse and man. J. Hered. 77, 2–7 (1986).

  2. 2

    Womack, J.E., Bolch, S. & Fries, R. Gene map of the cow (Bos taurus) 2N=60. in Genetic Maps 6th edn (ed. O'Brien, S. J.) 4.264–4.275 (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, 1993).

  3. 3

    Fries, R., Eggen, A. & Womack, J.E. The bovine genome map. Mammal. Genome 4, 405–428 (1993).

  4. 4

    Gallagher, D.S., & Womack, J.E. Chromosome conservation in the Bovidae. J. Hered. 83, 287–298 (1992).

  5. 5

    Ryan, A.M., Gallagher, D.S. & Womack, J.E. Syntenic mapping and chromosomal localization of bovine α and β interferon genes. Mammal. Genome 3, 575–578 (1992).

  6. 6

    Gallagher, D.S. Jr., Ryan, A.M., Sastry, K. & Womack, J.E. Somatic cell mapping of conglutanin (CGN1) to cattle syntenic group U29 and fluorescence in situ localization to chromosome 28. Mammal. Genome (in the press).

  7. 7

    Hayes, H.C. & Petit, E.J. Mapping of the β-lactoglobulin gene and of an immunoglobulin M heavy chain-like sequence to homoeologous cattle, sheep & goat chromosomes. Mammal. Genome 4, 207–210 (1993).

  8. 8

    Johnson, S.E., Barendse, W. & Hetzel, D.J.S. The gamma-fibrinogen gene maps to chromosome 17 in both cattle and sheep. Cytogenet. cell Genet. 62, 176–180 (1993).

  9. 9

    O'Brien, S.J. et al. Anchored reference loci for comparative genome mapping in mammals. Nature Genet. 3, 103–112 (1993).

  10. 10

    Womack, J.E. et al. Assignment of 47 additional comparative anchor loci to the bovine syntenic map. Cytogenet. cell Genet. 58, 2132 (1991).

  11. 11

    Womack, J.E. et al. Syntenic mapping of 37 loci in cattle. Chromosomal conservation with mouse and man. Cytogenet. cell. Genet. 51, 1109 (1989).

  12. 12

    Patterson, A.K. et al. Resolution of quantitative traits into mendelian factors by using a complete RFLP linkage map. Nature 335, 721–726 (1988).

  13. 13

    Hilbert, P. et al. Chromosomal mapping of two genetic loci associated with blood-pressure regulation in hereditary hypertensive rats. Nature 353, 521–529 (1992).

  14. 14

    Soller, M. . in Gene-Mapping Techniques and Applications (eds Schook, L. B., Lewin, H. A. & McLaren, D. G.) 21–49. (Dekker, 1991).

  15. 15

    Georges, M. et al. Characterization of a set of variable number of tandem repeat markers conserved in Bovidae. Genomics 11, 24–32 (1991).

  16. 16

    Moore, S.S., Barendse, W., Berger, K.T., Armitage, S.M. & Hetzel, D.J.S. Bovine and ovine DNA microsatellites from the EMBL and Genbank databases. Anim. Genet. 23, 463–467 (1992).

  17. 17

    Steffen, P. et al. Isolation and mapping of polymorphic microsatellites in cattle. Anim. Genet. 24, 121–124 (1993).

  18. 18

    Moore, S.S. et al. Characterisation of 65 bovine microsatellites. Mammal. Genome (in the press).

  19. 19

    Georges, M. & Massey, J.M. Polymorphic DNA markers in Bovidae. Patent WO 92/13102 (1992).

  20. 20

    Barendse, W. et al. A genetic map of DNA markers on bovine chromosome 1. Genomics (in the press).

  21. 21

    Jagiello, G.M., Miller, W.A., Ducayen, M.B. & Lin, J.S. Chiasma frequency and disjunctional behaviour of ewe and cow oocytes matured in vitro. Biol. Reprod. 10, 354–363 (1974).

  22. 22

    Logue, D.N. & Harvey, M.J.A. Meiosis and spermatogenesis in bulls heterozygous for a presumptive 1/29 Robertsonian translocation. J. reprod. Fertil. 54, 159–165 (1978).

  23. 23

    Weiffenbach, B. et al. A genetic linkage map of human chromosome 5 with 60 RFLP loci. Genomics 10, 173–185 (1991).

  24. 24

    Steele, M.R. & Georges, M. Generation of bovine multisite haplotypes using random cosmid clones. Genomics 10, 889–904 (1991).

  25. 25

    Dekkers, J.C.M. & Dentine, M.R. Quantitative genetic variance associated with chromosomal markers in segregating populations. Theor. appl. Genet. 81, 212–220 (1991).

  26. 26

    Fan, Y.S., Sasi, R., Lee, C., Court, D. & Lin, C.C. Mapping of 50 cosmid clones isolated from a flow-sorted human X chromosome library by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genomics 14, 542–545 (1992).

  27. 27

    Solinas Toldo, S. et al. Physically mapped cosmid-derived microsatellite markers as anchor loci on bovine chromosomes. Mammal. Genome (in the press).

  28. 28

    Hediger, R., Ansari, H.A. & Stranzinger, G. Chromosome banding and gene localization support extensive conservation of chromosome structure between cattle and sheep. Cytogenet. cell Genet. 57, 127–134 (1991).

  29. 29

    Saidi-Mehtar, N., Hors-Cayla, M.-C. & Van Cong, N. Sheep gene mapping by somatic cell hybridization: four syntenic groups: ENO1-PGD, ME1-PGM3, LDHB-PEPB-TPI and G6PD-PGK-GALA. Cytogenet. cell Genet. 30, 193–204 (1981).

  30. 30

    Echard, G. . in Genetic Maps 6th edn (ed. O'Brien, S. J.) 4.237–4.239 (Coid Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, 1993).

  31. 31

    Iman-Ghali, M., Saidi-Mehtar, N. & Hors-Cayla, M.C. Sheep gene mapping by somatic cell hybridization: synteny of PEPC, ENO1 & PGD. Cytogenet. cell Genet. 46, 632 (1987).

  32. 32

    White, M.J.D. Modes of Speciation. (W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1978).

  33. 33

    Bush, G.L., Case, S.M., Wilson, A.C. & Patton, J.L. Rapid speciation and chromosomal evolution in mammals. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74, 3942–3946 (1977).

  34. 34

    Colbert, E.H. Evolution of the Vertebrates. (John Wiley, 1955).

  35. 35

    Qumsiyeh, M.B., Valentine, M.B. & Suttle, D.P. Localization of the gene for uridine monophosphate synthetase to human chromosome region 3q13 by 63. in situ hybridization. Genomics 5, 160–162 (1989).

  36. 36

    van Rens, G.L.M. et al. Structure of the bovine eye lens γs-crystallin gene 64. (formerly βs). Gene 78, 225–233 (1989).

  37. 37

    Cox, D.R., Kawashima, H., Vora, S. & Epstein, C.J. Regional mapping of SOD-1, PRGS and PFK-L on human chromosome 21. Cytogenet. cell Genet. 37, 441–442 (1984).

  38. 38

    Hawkins, J.W. et al. Confirmation of the assignment of the human alpha 1- crystatlin gene (CRYA1) to chromosome 21 with regional localization to q22. 3. Hum. Genet. 76, 375–380 (1987).

  39. 39

    Petersen, M.B. et al. A genetic linkage map of 27 markers on human chromosome 21. Genomics 9, 407–419 (1991).

  40. 40

    Hillyard, A.L., Doolittle, D.P., Davisson, M.T. & Roderick, T.H. Locus map of mouse with comparative map points of human on mouse. GBase, The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609 (1992).

  41. 41

    Fries, R., Hediger, R., Stranzinger, G. The loci for parathyroid hormone and β-globin are closely linked and map to chromosome 15 in cattle. Genomics 3, 302–307 (1988).

  42. 42

    Fries, R. The gene for the β-subunit of the follicle-stimulating hormone maps to bovine chromosome 15. J. Hered. 80, 401–403 (1989).

  43. 43

    Junien, C. & van Heyningen, V. Report of the committee on the genetic constitution of chromosome 11. Cytogenet. cell Genet. 58, 459–554 (1991).

  44. 44

    Ziegler, A., Field, L.L. & Sakaguchi, A.Y. Report of the committee on the genetic constitution of chromosome 6. Cytogenet. cell Genet. 58, 295–336 (1991).

  45. 45

    Blanche, H. et al. A centromere-based genetic map of the short arm of human chromosome 6. Genomics 9, 420–428 (1991).

  46. 46

    Nadler, C.F. in Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics (ed. Benirschke, K.) 277–309 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969).

  47. 47

    Taylor, K.M., Hungerford, D.A. & Snyder, R.L. in Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics (ed. K. Benirschke) 346–356 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969).

  48. 48

    Egozcue, J. in Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics (ed. Benirschke, K.) 357–389 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969).

  49. 49

    Ohno, S. in Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics (ed. Benirschke, K.) 18–29 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969).

  50. 50

    Klein, J., Satta, Y., O'hUigin, C. & Takahata, N. The molecular descent of the major histocompatibility complex. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 11, 269–295 (1993).

  51. 51

    Andersson, L., Sigurdardottir, S., Borsch, C. & Gustafsson, K. Evolution of MHC polymorphism: extensive sharing of polymorphic sequence motifs between human and bovine DRB alleles. Immunogenet. 33, 188–193 (1991).

  52. 52

    Donis-Keller, H. et al. A genetic linkage map of the human genome. Cell 51, 319–337 (1987).

  53. 53

    Ott, J. Analysis of Human Genetic Linkage (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1985).

  54. 54

    Kosambi, D.D. The estimation of map distances from recombination values. Ann. Eugen. 12, 172–175 (1944).

  55. 55

    Keats, B.J.B. et al. Guidelines for Human Linkage (ISLM, 1990). Genomics 9, 557–560 (1991).

  56. 56

    NIH/CEPH Collaborative Mapping Group. A comprehensive genetic linkage map of the human genome. Science 258, 67–86 (1992).

  57. 57

    Brown, W.M., Dziegielewska, K.M., Foreman, R.C. & Saunders, N.R. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of sheep serum albumin. Nucl. Acids Res. 17, 10495 (1989).

  58. 58

    Avraham, A., Band, M., Yoffe, O., Shani, M. & Ron, M. Bovine dinucleotide repeat polmorphism at the ARO 28 locus. Anim. Genet. 24, 147. (1993).

  59. 59

    Gallagher, D.S. Jr., Basrur, P.K. & Womack, J.E. Identification of an autosome to X chromosome translocation in the domestic cow. J. Hered. 83, 451–453.

  60. 60

    Hay, R.E. & Petrash, J.M. Nucleotide sequence of abovine lens αA-crystallin cDNA. Biochem. biophys. res. Commun. 148, 31–37 (1987).

  61. 61

    Drinkwater, R.D. et al. Isolation and mapping of a single locus minisatellite sequence marker to 1 q36-qter and synteny group 10 in cattle & to 1 q36–qter in sheep. Genomics (In the press).

  62. 62

    Wang, N. et al. Bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylase, primary structure determined by cDNA cloning and amino acid sequencing. Biochemistry 29, 6466–6474 (1990).

  63. 63

    Lewis, E.J., Allison, S., Fader, D., Claflin, V. & Baizer, L. Bovine dopamine β-hydroxylase cDNA. J. biol. Chem. 265, 1021–1028 (1990).

  64. 64

    Brown, W.M., Dziegielewska, K.M., Foreman, R.C. & Saunders, N.R. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of a γ subunit of bovine fibrinogen. Nucl. Adds Res. 17, 6397 (1989).

  65. 65

    Kornblihtt, A.R., Vibe-Pedersen, K. & Baralle, F.E. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human and bovine fibronectins. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 3218–3222 (1983).

  66. 66

    Kim, K.E., Gordon, D.F. & Maurer, R.A. Nucleotide sequence of the bovine gene for follicle-stimulating homone beta-subunit. DNA 7, 227–233 (1988).

  67. 67

    Hediger, R. et al. Assignment of the growth hormone gene locus to 19q26–qter in cattle and to 11 q25-qter in sheep by in situ hybridization. Genomics 8, 171–174 (1990).

  68. 68

    Schimenti, J.C. & Duncan, C.H. Ruminant globin gene structures suggest an evolutionary role for Alu-type repeats. Nucl. Acids Res. 12, 1641–1655 (1984).

  69. 69

    Kaukinen, J. & Vanvio, S.-L. Eight polymorphic bovine microsateilites. Anim. Genet. 24, 148 (1993).

  70. 70

    Shalom, A., Soller, M. & Friedmann, A. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the bovine HUJ 616 locus. Anim. Genet. 24 327.

  71. 71

    Kirkpatrick, B.W. Identification of a conserved microsatellite site in the porcine and bovine insulin-like growth factor-l gene 5′ flank. Anim. Genet. 23, 543–548 (1992).

  72. 72

    Brown, W.M., Dziegielewska, K.M., Foreman, R.C. & Saunders, N.R. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of insulin-like growth factor II cDNAs from adult bovine and fetal sheep liver. Nucl. Acids Res. 18, 4614 (1990).

  73. 73

    Dietz, A.B., Neibergs, H.L. & Womack, J.E. Assignment of eight loci to bovine syntenic groups by use of PCR: extension of a comparative map. Mammal. Genome 3, 106–111 (1992).

  74. 74

    Medrano, J.F. & Aguilar-Cordova, E. Polymeraseohain reaction amplification of bovine β-lactoglobulin genomic sequences and identification of genetic variants by RFLP analysis. Anim. Biotech. 1, 73–77 (1990).

  75. 75

    Ryan, A.M. & Womack, J.E. Somatic cell mapping of the bovine prion protein gene and restriction fragment length polymorphism studies in cattle and sheep. Anim. Genet. 24, 23–26 (1993).

  76. 76

    Weaver, C.A., Gordon, D.F., Kissil, M.S., Mead, D.A. & Kemper, B. Isolation and complete nucleotide sequence of the gene for bovine parathyroid hormone. Gene 28, 319–329 (1984).

  77. 77

    Kossarek, L.M. et al. Bovine dinucleotide repeat polymorphism RM209. J. anim. Sci. (in the press).

  78. 78

    Hallewell, R.A. et al. Thermostabilization of recombinant human and bovine CuZn superoxide dismutases by replacement of free cysteines. Biochem. biophys. res. Commun. 181, 474–480 (1991).

  79. 79

    Ryan, A.M., Gallagher, D.S., Schoeber, S., Schwenger, B. & Womack, J.E. Somatic cell mapping and in situ localization of the bovine uridine monophosphate synthase (UMPS) gene. Mammal. Genome (in the press).

  80. 80

    Sun, H.S., Hart, G.L. & Kirkpatrick, B.W. A polymorphic microsatellite (UWCA1) detected on bovine chromosome 23. Anim. Genet. 24, 142 (1993).

  81. 81

    Barendse, W., Armitage, S.M., Womack, J.E. & Hetzel, J. Linkage relations between A2M, HOX3, INT1, KRAS2 & PAH on bovine chromosome 5. Genomics 14, 38–42 (1992).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Further reading