Samoans are a unique founder population with a high prevalence of obesity1,2,3, making them well suited for identifying new genetic contributors to obesity4. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 3,072 Samoans, discovered a variant, rs12513649, strongly associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 5.3 × 10−14), and replicated the association in 2,102 additional Samoans (P = 1.2 × 10−9). Targeted sequencing identified a strongly associated missense variant, rs373863828 (p.Arg457Gln), in CREBRF (meta P = 1.4 × 10−20). Although this variant is extremely rare in other populations, it is common in Samoans (frequency of 0.259), with an effect size much larger than that of any other known common BMI risk variant (1.36–1.45 kg/m2 per copy of the risk-associated allele). In comparison to wild-type CREBRF, the Arg457Gln variant when overexpressed selectively decreased energy use and increased fat storage in an adipocyte cell model. These data, in combination with evidence of positive selection of the allele encoding p.Arg457Gln, support a 'thrifty' variant hypothesis as a factor in human obesity.
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The authors would like to thank the Samoan participants of the study, and local village authorities and the many Samoan and other field workers over the years. We acknowledge the Samoan Ministry of Health and the Samoan Bureau of Statistics, and the American Samoan Department of Health for their support of this research. We also acknowledge S.S. Shiva and C.G. Corey at the University of Pittsburgh Center for Metabolism and Mitochondrial Biology for assistance with cellular bioenergetic profiling. This work was funded by NIH grants R01-HL093093 (S.T.M.), R01-AG09375 (S.T.M.), R01-HL52611 (I. Kamboh), R01-DK59642 (S.T.M.), P30 ES006096 (S.M. Ho), R01-DK55406. (R.D.), R01-HL090648 (Z.U.), and R01-DK090166 (E.E.K.) and by Brown University student research funds. Genotyping was performed in the Core Genotyping Laboratory at the University of Cincinnati, funded by NIH grant P30 ES006096 (S.M. Ho). Illumina sequencing was conducted at the Genetic Resources Core Facility, Johns Hopkins Institute of Genetic Medicine (Baltimore).
Some authors are listed as inventors on a provisional patent application covering aspects of this work that has been filed with the US Patent and Trademark Office (S.T.M., N.L.H., R.D., D.E.W., R.L.M., Z.U., C.-T.S., and E.E.K.).
Integrated supplementary information
Supplementary Figure 1 Principal-components analyses.
(a) Scatterplot of the first three principal components from the principal-components analysis of the Samoan and HapMap phase 3 populations. Continental population abbreviations: SAM, Samoans (n = 250); EUR, Europeans (n = 253); AFR, Africans (n = 511); EAS, East Asians (n = 255); SAS, South Asians (n = 88); AMR, admixed Americans (n = 77). Supplementary Video 1 shows a rotating animation of this figure. (b) Scatterplots of the first six principal components from the principal-components analysis of the Samoans alone (n = 3,094) plotted against each other.
Supplementary Figure 2 Quantile–quantile plot for the BMI GWAS.
A quantile–quantile (QQ) plot of the observed −log10 (P values) from Figure 1a for association of BMI in the discovery sample versus –log10 (P values) as expected under no association. The second most significant variant, rs3132141, lies between BNIP1 and NKX2-5 and is 184.5 kb from the most significant variant, rs12513649. n = 3,072 Samoans.
Supplementary Figure 3 Conditional associations of targeted sequencing genotypes with BMI.
(a–d) Associations between SNPs in the targeted sequencing regions and BMI conditioned on rs12513649 (a), rs150207780 (b), rs373863828 (c), and rs3095870 (d). The red line in each plot corresponds to a P value of 5 × 10−8. n = 3,072 Samoans.
Supplementary Figure 4 Beanplots of BMI in GWAS and replication samples stratified by missense variant rs373863828 genotype, sex, and nation.
Each bean consists of a mirrored density curve containing a one-dimensional scatterplot of the individual data. The heavy dark line shows the average within each group, and the dotted line indicates the overall average. Plots were drawn using the R beanplot package33. Sample sizes are as indicated in Supplementary Table 1.
Supplementary Figure 5 Expression of CREBRF in human and mouse tissues.
(a) Human CREBRF mRNA expression was determined in multiple human tissues using Human cDNA Arrays from Origene (n = 1/tissue; nutritional status not known). (b) Mouse Crebrf mRNA expression was determined in mouse tissues obtained from 10-week-old, littermate-matched, ad libitum–fed, male C56BL/6J mice (n = 6/group). Expression was normalized to the endogenous control gene peptidylprolyl isomerase A/cyclophilin A (PPIA for human; Ppia for mouse). Values represent relative expression and are expressed as means plus s.e.m. No statistical comparisons were performed. pg, perigonadal; sc, inguinal subcutaneous; mes, mesenteric. These data support the presence/absence of CREBRF in specific tissues but should be used with caution when assessing relative expression, particularly in humans where precise conditions at the time of tissue collection are not known. Gene expression can be compared to additional in silico resources including the BGTEx and BioGPS portals (see URLs).
Supplementary Figure 6 Expression of mouse Crebrf relative to key adipogenic genes during adipocyte differentiation.
3T3-L1 cells were treated with a hormonal differentiation cocktail at 2 d after confluence (day 0, D0), and RNA samples were collected at the indicated time points. mRNA expression relative to the β-actin (Actb) reference gene was determined using quantitative RT–PCR, with day 0 expression values set at 1. Values are given as means ± s.e.m. (n = 8). A representative of five independent experiments is shown.
Supplementary Figure 7 Bioenergetic profile changes during adipocyte differentiation.
3T3-L1 cells were treated with a hormonal differentiation cocktail at 2 d after confluence (day 0, D0), and key bioenergetic variables were determined on the basis of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) measurements normalized to protein content. Values are given as means ± s.e.m. (n = 6). *P < 0.01 compared to day 0 (two-tailed t test with unequal variances). As the results were consistent with previously published data24,25, the experiment was performed once.
Supplementary Figure 8 iHS and nSL scores in an 800-kb region centered on the missense variant rs373863828 (n = 626 non-closely related Samoans).
(a) iHS scores versus physical position. (b) nSL scores versus physical position. In both a and b, the blue dot indicates the score at the missense variant rs373863828 and the yellow dot indicates the score at the discovery variant rs12513649; the dotted horizontal line indicates the score at the missense variant rs373863828.
Supplementary Text and Figures
Supplementary Figures 1–8, Supplementary Tables 1–3 and Supplementary Note. (PDF 1946 kb)
A rotating animation of a scatterplot of the first three principal components from the principal-components analysis of the Samoan and HapMap phase 3 populations. Continental population abbreviations: SAM, Samoans (n = 250); EUR, Europeans (n = 253); AFR, Africans (n = 511); EAS, East Asians (n = 255); SAS, South Asians (n = 88); AMR, admixed Americans (n = 77). (MOV 790 kb)
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Minster, R., Hawley, N., Su, CT. et al. A thrifty variant in CREBRF strongly influences body mass index in Samoans. Nat Genet 48, 1049–1054 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3620
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