Many genetic variants influence complex traits by modulating gene expression, thus altering the abundance of one or multiple proteins. Here we introduce a powerful strategy that integrates gene expression measurements with summary association statistics from large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genes whose cis-regulated expression is associated with complex traits. We leverage expression imputation from genetic data to perform a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify significant expression-trait associations. We applied our approaches to expression data from blood and adipose tissue measured in 3,000 individuals overall. We imputed gene expression into GWAS data from over 900,000 phenotype measurements to identify 69 new genes significantly associated with obesity-related traits (BMI, lipids and height). Many of these genes are associated with relevant phenotypes in the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel. Our results showcase the power of integrating genotype, gene expression and phenotype to gain insights into the genetic basis of complex traits.

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We thank the individuals who participated in the study. We also acknowledge L. Yang for helpful discussions that have improved the quality of this manuscript. We also thank K. Mohlke, M. Boehnke and F. Collins for help with the METSIM data. This work was funded in part by US National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants F32 GM106584 (A.G.), R01 GM053725 (B.P.), R01 GM105857 (A.L.P., A.G. and G.B.), HL-28481 (P.P., A.J.L. and M.C.) and HL-095056 (P.P. and B.P.) and by the US NIH training grant in Genomic Analysis and Interpretation T32 HG002536 (A.K.).

Author information


  1. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Alexander Gusev
    • , Gaurav Bhatia
    • , Wonil Chung
    •  & Alkes L Price
  2. Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Alexander Gusev
    • , Gaurav Bhatia
    •  & Alkes L Price
  3. Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Alexander Gusev
    • , Gaurav Bhatia
    •  & Alkes L Price
  4. Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Arthur Ko
    • , Elina Nikkola
    • , Marcus Alvarez
    • , Aldons J Lusis
    • , Päivi Pajukanta
    •  & Bogdan Pasaniuc
  5. Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Arthur Ko
    •  & Päivi Pajukanta
  6. Bioinformatics Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Huwenbo Shi
    •  & Bogdan Pasaniuc
  7. Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Brenda W J H Penninx
    •  & Rick Jansen
  8. Department of Biological Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Eco J C de Geus
    •  & Dorret I Boomsma
  9. Bioinformatics Research Center, Department of Statistics, Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

    • Fred A Wright
  10. Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Patrick F Sullivan
  11. Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Patrick F Sullivan
  12. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    • Patrick F Sullivan
  13. Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Mete Civelek
    •  & Aldons J Lusis
  14. Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tampere, Finland.

    • Terho Lehtimäki
    • , Emma Raitoharju
    •  & Ilkka Seppälä
  15. Department of Clinical Physiology, Pirkanmaa Hospital District and University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tampere, Finland.

    • Mika Kähönen
  16. Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

    • Olli T Raitakari
  17. Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

    • Olli T Raitakari
  18. Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.

    • Johanna Kuusisto
    •  & Markku Laakso
  19. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Bogdan Pasaniuc


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A.G. and B.P. conceived and designed the experiments. A.G., A.K. and H.S. performed the experiments and analyzed the data. G.B., W.C., B.W.J.H.P., R.J., E.J.C.d.G., D.I.B., F.A.W., P.F.S., E.N., M.A., M.C., A.J.L., T.L., E.R., M.K., I.S., O.T.R., J.K. and M.L. generated data, reagents, materials and analysis tools. A.G., A.L.P., P.P. and B.P. wrote the manuscript. All authors reviewed, revised and wrote feedback for the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Alexander Gusev or Bogdan Pasaniuc.

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