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Experimental evolution reveals natural selection on standing genetic variation

Abstract

Evolution depends on genetic variation generated by mutation or recombination from standing genetic variation. In sexual organisms, little is known about the molecular population genetics of adaptation and reverse evolution1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11. We carry out 50 generations of experimental reverse evolution in populations of Drosophila melanogaster, previously differentiated by forward evolution, and follow changes in the frequency of SNPs in both arms of the third chromosome. We characterize the effects of sampling finite population sizes and natural selection at the genotype level. We demonstrate that selection has occurred at several loci and further that there is no general loss or gain of allele diversity. We also observe that despite the complete convergence to ancestral levels of adaptation, allele frequencies only show partial return.

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Figure 1: Experimental evolution design.
Figure 2: Population dynamics of SNPs.
Figure 3: Loci undergoing independent evolution.
Figure 4: Effects of sampling finite populations.
Figure 5: Reverse evolution at the genotype level.

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Acknowledgements

We thank T. Aires, D. Brites, J. Costa and I. Marques for support with SNP discovery and genotyping, and G. McVean for support with LDhat. We thank R. Azevedo, S. Carvalho, A. Coutinho, S. Estes, L. Mueller, P. Phillips, S. Proulx, M. Che Soares and É. Sucena for comments on the project and manuscript. Financial support was provided by The National Science Foundation to A.D.L. (DEB-0614429), and Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT/FEDER POCTI/BSE/48228/2002) and Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian to H.T.

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Authors

Contributions

H.T., I.M.C. and M.B. performed the experiments. H.T., I.M.C. and A.D.L. analysed the data. H.T., M.R.R. and A.D.L. conceived the project and wrote the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Henrique Teotónio.

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Supplementary Figures 1–4 and Supplementary Tables 1–6 (PDF 513 kb)

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Teotónio, H., Chelo, I., Bradić, M. et al. Experimental evolution reveals natural selection on standing genetic variation. Nat Genet 41, 251–257 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.289

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