Water-energy nexus

Assessing integrated systems

The various supply chains that deliver the services society needs are often managed in silos. Research now shows the advantages of integrated management.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: The embodied energy in the water-cycle components in Arizona, USA in 2008.


  1. 1

    Bazilian, M. et al. Energy Policy 39, 7896–7906 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Bartos, M. D. & Chester, M. V. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48, 2139–2149 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Directive 2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2001 on the Assessment of the Effects of Certain Plans and Programmes on the Environment (Eur-Lex, 2001); http://go.nature.com/pmYRty

  4. 4

    Global Sustainable Development Report — Executive Summary: Building the Common Future We Want (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable Development, 2013); http://go.nature.com/GCT4fM

  5. 5

    Bhattacharyya, S. C. Energy Economics: Concepts, Issues, Markets and Governance (Springer, 2011).

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Rahaman, M. M. & Varis, O. Sustain. Sci. Pract. Policy 1, 15–21 (2005).

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Back to Our Common Future: Sustainable Development in the 21st Century (SD21) Project 21–23 (United Nations Division of Economic and Social Affairs, 2012); http://go.nature.com/8n4E3a

Download references

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Mark Howells or H-Holger Rogner.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Howells, M., Rogner, H. Assessing integrated systems. Nature Clim Change 4, 246–247 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2180

Download citation

Further reading