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Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis


Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found that the bacterium associated with the ant Apterostigma dentigerum produces dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide with highly modified amino acids, to selectively inhibit the associated parasitic fungus (Escovopsis sp.).

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Figure 1: Symbiotic partners: ant, fungi and bacteria.
Figure 2: Structure and activity of dentigerumycin (1).


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We thank the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute for providing facilities in which to work in Panama, the Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente y el Mar for sampling and export permits, J. Heemstra and C. Walsh (Harvard Medical School) for providing synthetic piperazic acids, and A. Adams, S. Marsh, A. Pinto-Tomas and G. Suen (University of Wisconsin–Madison) for comments on a manuscript draft. This work was supported by funding from the Lundbeck and Carlsberg Foundations to M.P., from the US National Science Foundation (MCB07020255) to C.R.C. and from the US National Institutes of Health (CA24487) to J.C.

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D.-C.O., M.P., C.R.C. and J.C. designed experiments and wrote the manuscript. D.-C.O. performed the structural determination and biological activity analysis on dentigerumycin. M.P. isolated the cultivar, the parasite and the Pseudonocardia symbionts and performed bioassay parings.

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Correspondence to Cameron R Currie or Jon Clardy.

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Supplementary Figures 1–8, Supplementary Tables 1 and 2, and Supplementary Methods (PDF 1001 kb)

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Oh, DC., Poulsen, M., Currie, C. et al. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis. Nat Chem Biol 5, 391–393 (2009).

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