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Materials discovery at high pressures

A Correction to this article was published on 07 March 2017

Abstract

Pressure is a fundamental thermodynamic variable that can be used to control the properties of materials, because it reduces interatomic distances and profoundly modifies electronic orbitals and bonding patterns. It is thus a versatile tool for the creation of exotic materials not accessible at ambient conditions. Recently developed static and dynamic high-pressure experimental techniques have led to the synthesis of many functional materials with excellent performance: for example, superconductors, superhard materials and high-energy-density materials. Some of these advances have been aided and accelerated by first-principles crystal-structure searching simulations. In this Review, we discuss recent progress in high-pressure materials discovery, placing particular emphasis on the record high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen sulfide and on nanotwinned cubic boron nitride and diamond, the hardest known materials. Energy materials and exotic chemical materials obtained under high pressures are also discussed. The main drawback of high-pressure materials is their destabilization after pressure release; this problem and its possible solutions are surveyed in the conclusions, which also provide an outlook on the future developments in the field.

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Figure 1: Materials discovery through pressure-induced phase transitions.
Figure 2: Superconductive materials obtained at high pressures.
Figure 3: Light-element-based superhard materials.
Figure 4: Crystal structures of different phases of polymeric nitrogen.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge funding support from the National Key Research and Development Program of China (under Grant No. 2016YFB0201200), National Natural Science Foundation of China (under Grants No. 11404131, 11674121 and 11534003), 2012 Changjiang Scholar of Ministry of Education, Recruitment Program of Global Youth Experts in China, and Science Challenge Project (under Grant No. JCKY2016212A501).

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Zhang, L., Wang, Y., Lv, J. et al. Materials discovery at high pressures. Nat Rev Mater 2, 17005 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/natrevmats.2017.5

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