The chemistry of metal–organic frameworks for CO2 capture, regeneration and conversion

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Abstract

The carbon dioxide challenge is one of the most pressing problems facing our planet. Each stage in the carbon cycle — capture, regeneration and conversion — has its own materials requirements. Recent work on metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) demonstrated the potential and effectiveness of these materials in addressing this challenge. In this Review, we identify the specific structural and chemical properties of MOFs that have led to the highest capture capacities, the most efficient separations and regeneration processes, and the most effective catalytic conversions. The interior of MOFs can be designed to have coordinatively unsaturated metal sites, specific heteroatoms, covalent functionalization, other building unit interactions, hydrophobicity, porosity, defects and embedded nanoscale metal catalysts with a level of precision that is crucial for the development of higher-performance MOFs. To realize a total solution, it is necessary to use the precision of MOF chemistry to build more complex materials to address selectivity, capacity and conversion together in one material.

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Figure 1: Chronology of key achievements made in the field of MOFs and CO2.
Figure 2: Important structural design features of effective MOF adsorbents for selective CO2 capture.
Figure 3: IRMOF-74-III with alkylamine functionality for the chemisorption of CO2 in the presence of water.
Figure 4: Selectivity versus CO2 permeability compared to the Robeson upper bound curves for pure polymeric, mixed-matrix and pure MOF membranes.
Figure 5: Strategies for improving photochemical CO2 reduction.
Figure 6: Electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO by a Co-porphyrin-containing MOF.
Figure 7: Proposed mechanism for the catalytic cycloaddition of propylene oxide with CO2 by Hf-NU-1000 to form a cyclic carbonate.

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Acknowledgements

Work related to this topic is funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Energy Frontier Research Center (DE-SC0001015) for adsorption and S. Aramco Carbon Capture and Utilization Chair Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals for industrial considerations. The authors acknowledge collaborations with and support of S. Aramco (Project No. ORCP2390). Finally, the authors are grateful to K. Choi for helpful discussions.

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Correspondence to Omar M. Yaghi.

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Trickett, C., Helal, A., Al-Maythalony, B. et al. The chemistry of metal–organic frameworks for CO2 capture, regeneration and conversion. Nat Rev Mater 2, 17045 (2017) doi:10.1038/natrevmats.2017.45

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