Graphene has recently enabled the dramatic improvement of portable electronics and electric vehicles by providing better means for storing electricity. In this Review, we discuss the current status of graphene in energy storage and highlight ongoing research activities, with specific emphasis placed on the processing of graphene into electrodes, which is an essential step in the production of devices. We calculate the maximum energy density of graphene supercapacitors and outline ways for future improvements. We also discuss the synthesis and assembly of graphene into macrostructures, ranging from 0D quantum dots, 1D wires, 2D sheets and 3D frameworks, to potentially 4D self-folding materials that allow the design of batteries and supercapacitors with many new features that do not exist in current technology.
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The authors thank Nanotech Energy for financial support.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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El-Kady, M., Shao, Y. & Kaner, R. Graphene for batteries, supercapacitors and beyond. Nat Rev Mater 1, 16033 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/natrevmats.2016.33
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