Personal exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) can occur while people are cooking, driving, smoking, operating small appliances such as hair dryers, or eating out in restaurants. These exposures can often be higher than outdoor concentrations. For 3 years, portable monitors were employed in homes, cars, and restaurants. More than 300 measurement periods in several homes were documented, along with 25 h of driving two cars, and 22 visits to restaurants. Cooking on gas or electric stoves and electric toaster ovens was a major source of UFP, with peak personal exposures often exceeding 100,000 particles/cm3 and estimated emission rates in the neighborhood of 1012 particles/min. Other common sources of high UFP exposures were cigarettes, a vented gas clothes dryer, an air popcorn popper, candles, an electric mixer, a toaster, a hair dryer, a curling iron, and a steam iron. Relatively low indoor UFP emissions were noted for a fireplace, several space heaters, and a laser printer. Driving resulted in moderate exposures averaging about 30,000 particles/cm3 in each of two cars driven on 17 trips on major highways on the East and West Coasts. Most of the restaurants visited maintained consistently high levels of 50,000–200,000 particles/cm3 for the entire length of the meal. The indoor/outdoor ratios of size-resolved UFP were much lower than for PM2.5 or PM10, suggesting that outdoor UFP have difficulty in penetrating a home. This in turn implies that outdoor concentrations of UFP have only a moderate effect on personal exposures if indoor sources are present. A time-weighted scenario suggests that for typical suburban nonsmoker lifestyles, indoor sources provide about 47% and outdoor sources about 36% of total daily UFP exposure and in-vehicle exposures add the remainder (17%). However, the effect of one smoker in the home results in an overwhelming increase in the importance of indoor sources (77% of the total).
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One of us (LW) acknowledges Andrew Persily and members of his group at the National Institute of Standards and Technology for supplying the Model 3007 and the test house on the NIST campus where the indoor–outdoor measurements were made. WO gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Jane McAteer in monitoring several California restaurants, and the Flight Attendants’ Medical Research Institute for support. We also acknowledge TSI for loaning a second Model 3007 to determine the precision of the instrument.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Wallace, L., Ott, W. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 21, 20–30 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2009.59
- gas stoves
- electric stoves
- tobacco smoke
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