Pediatric Original Article | Published:

Modeling the dynamics of BMI changes during adolescence. The Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study

International Journal of Obesity volume 39, pages 10631069 (2015) | Download Citation

Abstract

Objectives:

The aims of this study were twofold: (i) to model changes in body mass index (BMI) of 10–18-year-old adolescents, and (ii) to investigate the effects of total physical activity (TPA), physical fitness (PF), sleep duration and fruit/vegetable consumption in BMI trajectories across time.

Methods:

Data were obtained from the Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study and comprised 6894 adolescents (3418 girls) divided into four age cohorts (10, 12, 14 and 16 years) measured annually for 3 years. BMI was computed using the standard formula (kg m−2); TPA was estimated with the Baecke questionnaire; PF measures included 1-mile run/walk, 50 yard dash (50YD), standing long jump (SLJ), handgrip strength (HGr) and agility shuttle run. Longitudinal changes in BMI were analyzed using the multilevel modeling approach.

Results:

The average BMI at age of peak of height velocity was 20.7±0.07 kg m−2 for girls (P<0.001) and 20.58±0.06 kg m−2 for boys (P<0.001). The annual increment in BMI was 1.36±0.04 kg m−2, P<0.001 and 1.23±0.03 kg m−2, P<0.001 for girls and boys, respectively. PF were related to BMI trajectories in both sexes (Girls: β1mile=0.12±0.02, P<0.001; βSLJ=-0.01±0.00, P<0.001; β50YD=0.28±0.05, P<0.001; βHGr=−8.91±0.54, P<0.001; Boys: β1mile=0.18±0.02, P<0.001; βSLJ=−0.01±0.00, P<0.001; β50YD=0.26±0.04, P<0.001; and βHGr=-8.15±0.45, P<0.001). TPA only showed significant, but positive, association with girls’ BMI trajectories (β=0.10±0.03, P=0.001). After adjusting for the covariates, sleep duration and fruit/vegetable intake did not show any significant association with BMI trajectories either sex.

Conclusions:

BMI increased linearly with age in both gender. PF levels are negatively associated with BMI across time in both boys and girls. Therefore, promotion of PF in the adolescent years seems to be effective in the early prevention of obesity.

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Author information

Affiliations

  1. CIFI2D, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

    • M C de Souza
    • , D V e Santos
    •  & J A R Maia
  2. CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília, Brazil

    • M C de Souza
  3. Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

    • J C Eisenmann
  4. Federal University of Technology of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

    • R N de Chaves
  5. Exercise Hemodynamic Laboratory, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

    • C L de Moraes Forjaz

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The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to M C de Souza.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2015.60

Author contributions

MS collected the data, undertook the data analysis and interpretation, and led the writing of the article. JE supervised data management and contributed to drafting the paper. DS and RC collected the data and contributed to drafting the paper. CF and JM organized and supervised data collection and management, and contributed to drafting the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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