A spinal pattern generator controls the ejaculatory response. Central pattern generators (CPGs) may be entrained to improve the motor patterns under their control. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that training of the spinal generator for ejaculation (SGE) by daily copulation until ejaculation, could promote substantive changes in its functioning permitting a better SGE control of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation (GMPE) and, as a consequence, a normalization of the ejaculation latency of rats with rapid ejaculation. To that aim, we evaluated in sexually experienced male rats with rapid ejaculation (1) the effects of daily copulation to ejaculation, following different entrainment schedules, on their ejaculation latencies, (2) the impact of these different ejaculatory entrainment schedules upon the parameters of the GMPE and (3) the possible emergence of persistent changes in the functioning of the SGE associated to the daily ejaculation entrainment schedules. The data obtained show that intense ejaculatory training of rats with rapid ejaculation lengthens the ejaculation latency during copulation and augments the ejaculatory capacity of the SGE in this population when spinalized. Thus, present data reveal that like other CPGs, the SGE can be trained and put forward that training of the SGE by daily copulation to ejaculation might be a promising alternative that should be taken into consideration for the treatment of premature ejaculation.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $32.38 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Waldinger MD . Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2014; 27: 400–405.
Xia JD, Dai YT . Pathogenesis of premature ejaculation: a neurobiological approach. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2014; 20: 1131–1135.
Gao J, Zhang X, Su P, Peng Z, Liu J, Xia L et al. The impact of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time and erectile function on anxiety and depression in the four types of premature ejaculation: a large cross-sectional study in a Chinese population. J Sex Med 2014; 11: 521–528.
Xia JD, Zhou LH, Han YF, Chen Y, Wang R, Dai YT . A reassessment of penile sensory pathways and effects of prilocaine-lidocaine cream in primary premature ejaculation. Int J Impot Res 2014; 26: 186–190.
Cayan S, Serefoğlu EC . Advances in treating premature ejaculation. F1000Prime Rep 2014; 6: 55.
Pastore Al, Palleschi G, Fuschi A, Maggioni C, Rago R, Zucchi A et al. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation for patients with lifelong premature ejaculation: a novel therapeutic approach. Adv Urol 2014; 6: 83–88.
Zhou XJ, Zhang ZG, Hao L, Zhang WD, Dong BZ, Han CH . Elective microscopic resection of dorsal penile nerves for primary premature ejaculation: a clinical observation. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2013; 19: 1003–1006.
Newman H, Reiss H, Northurp JD . Physical basis of emission, ejaculation, and orgasm in the male. Urology 1982; 19: 341–350.
Mitsuya H, Asai J, Suyama K, Ushida T, Hosoe K . Application of x-ray cinematography in urology: I. Mechanism of ejaculation. J Urol 1976; 83: 86–92.
Watson JW . Mechanism of erection and ejaculation in bull and ram. Nature 1964; 404: 95–96.
Carro-Juárez M, Rodríguez-Manzo G . The spinal generator for ejaculation. Brain Res Rev 2008; 58: 106–120.
Carro-Juárez M, Rodríguez-Manzo G . Sensory and motor aspects of the coital reflex in the spinal male rat. Behav Brain Res 2000; 108: 97–103.
Truitt WA, Coolen LM . Identification of a potential ejaculation generator in the spinal cord. Science 2002; 297: 1566–1569.
Carro-Juárez M, Cruz SL, Rodríguez-Manzo G . Evidence for the involvement of a spinal pattern generator in the control of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation. Brain Res 2003; 975: 222–228.
Borgdorff AJ, Rössler AS, Clément P, Bernabé J, Alexandre L, Giuliano F . Differences in the spinal command of ejaculation in rapid ejaculating rats. J Sex Med 2009; 6: 2197–2205.
Clement P, Peeters M, Bernabe J, Laurin M, Alexandre L, Giuliano F . Role of the neurokinin-1 receptors in ejaculation in anesthetized rats. J Sex Med 2009; 6: 26–34.
Kozyrev N, Lehman MN, Coolen LM . Activation of gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in the lumbosacral spinal cord is required for ejaculation in male rats. J Sex Med 2012; 9: 1303–1318.
Courtois F, Carrier S, Charvier K, Guertin PA, Journel NM . The control of male sexual responses. Curr Pharm Des 2013; 19: 4341–4356.
Carro-Juárez M, Rodríguez-Manzo G . Participation of endogenous opioids in the inhibition of the spinal generator for ejaculation in rats. J Sex Med 2009; 6: 3045–3055.
Staudt MD, de Oliveira CV, Lehman MN, McKenna KE, Coolen LM . Activation of NMDA receptors in lumbar spinothalamic cells is required for ejaculation. J Sex Med 2011; 8: 1015–1026.
McClellan AD, Sigvardt KA . Features of entrainment of spinal pattern generators for locomotor activity in the lamprey spinal cord. J Neurosci 1988; 8: 133–145.
Knikou M . Neural control of locomotion and training-induced plasticity after spinal and cerebral lesions. Clin Neurophysiol 2010; 121: 1655–1668.
Duchateau J, Semmler JG, Enoka RM . Training adaptations in the behavior of human motor units. J Appl Physiol 1985; 101: 1766–1775.
Hadders-Algra M, Brogren E, Forssberg H . Training affects the development of postural adjustments in sitting infants. J Physiol 1996; 493: 289–298.
Bizzi E, Tresch MC, Saltiel P, d'Avella A . New perspectives on spinal motor systems. Nat Rev Neurosci 2000; 1: 101–108.
Carro-Juárez M, Rodríguez-Manzo G . Role of the genital sensory information in the control of the functioning of the spinal generator for ejaculation. Int J Impot Res 2005; 17: 114–120.
Pattij T, Olivier B, Waldinger M . Animal models of ejaculatory behavior. Curr Pharm Des 2005; 11: 4069–4077.
Olivier B, Chan JS, Pattij T, de Jong TR, Oosting RS, Veening JG et al. Psychopharmacology of male rat sexual behavior: modeling human sexual dysfunctions? Int J Impot Res 2006; 18: S14–S23.
Zehr EP . Training-induced adaptive plasticity in human somatosensory reflex pathways. J Appl Physiol 1985; 101: 1783–1794.
Carro-Juárez M, Franco MÁ, Rodríguez-Peña ML . Increase of the ejaculatory potency by the systemic administration of aqueous crude extracts of cihuapatli (Montanoa genus) plants in spinal male rats. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2014; 19: 43–50.
Birri MA, Franco MA, Vallejo MG, Carro-Juárez M, Agnese AM . Huperzia saururus Lam. Trevis. (Lycopodiaceae) facilitates ejaculation in spinal cord transected male rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 157: 38–44.
Perez MA, Field-Fote EC, Floeter MK . Patterned sensory stimulation induces plasticity in reciprocal IA inhibition in humans. J Neurosci 2003; 3: 2014–2018.
Hull EM, Rodríguez-Manzo G . Male sexual behavior: Hormones, Brain and Behavior 2nd edn. Academic Press/Elsevier: San Diego, 2009.
Rodríguez-Manzo G, Canseco-Alba A. A role for learning and memory in the expression of an innate behavior: the case of copulatory behavior. In: Meneses A (ed). Identification of Neural Markers Accompanying Memory. Elsevier, Chapter 9, 2014, pp 135–147.
Rodríguez-Peña ML received a fellowship from CONACYT (No. 377677).
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Rodríguez-Peña, M., Rodríguez-Manzo, G. & Carro-Juárez, M. Ejaculatory training lengthens the ejaculation latency and facilitates the functioning of the spinal generator for ejaculation of rats with rapid ejaculation. Int J Impot Res 29, 35–42 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/ijir.2016.42